| Acest articol (sau părți din el) este propus spre traducere din limba engleză!
Dacă doriți să vă asumați acestă traducere (parțial sau integral), anunțați acest lucru pe pagina de discuții a articolului.
- "There is also the superstition of the Ishmaelites which to this day prevails and keeps people in error, being a forerunner of the Antichrist. They are descended from Ishmael, who was born to Abraham of Agar, and for this reason they are called both Agarenes and Ishmaelites. They are also called Saracens, which is derived from Sarras kenoi, or destitute of Sara, because of what Agar said to the angel: 'Sara hath sent me away destitute.' These used to be idolaters and worshiped the morning star and Aphrodite, whom in their own language they called Khabár, which means great. And so down to the time of Heraclius they were very great idolaters. From that time to the present a false prophet named Mohammed has appeared in their midst. This man, after having chanced upon the Old and New Testaments and likewise, it seems, having conversed with an Arian monk, devised his own heresy. Then, having insinuated himself into the good graces of the people by a show of seeming piety, he gave out that a certain book had been sent down to him from heaven. He had set down some ridiculous compositions in this book of his and he gave it to them as an object of veneration."
Islam is one of the major world religions with an estimated 1.3 billion followers worldwide . The name Islam comes from an Arabic term meaning submission, a reference to the central belief that the goal of religion, or of a true believer, is submission to God's will. Adherents of Islam are referred to as Muslims.
Islam teaches that God (in Arabic, Allah) revealed his direct word and commands for mankind to Muhammad (c. 570–632) in the form of the Qur'an (also Koran), and to other prophets (including Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus), many of whom are Biblical figures shared with Christianity and Judaism. Despite admitting the ministry of prophets earlier than Muhammad, Islam asserts that the primary written record of God's revelation to humankind is the Qur'an, which Muslims believe to be flawless, immutable, and the final revelation of God.
Islam has been termed one of the three Abrahamic religions, along with Christianity and Judaism. At times, the Bahá'í Faith is also included.
Islam teaches that parts of the Bible have been forgotten, misinterpreted, or distorted by Christians and Jews. Given this perspective, Islam views the Qur'an as corrective of Jewish and Christian scriptures.
Muslims do not hold the divinity of Jesus Christ and his unique salvific role, and the teachings of Islam in this respect have been likened to a compound heresy composed of elements of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Docetism ("...They did not kill him [Jesus] and they did not crucify him, but it was made to seem so to them..." Qur'an, 4:157), with some Pelagian and also Monarchianistic (i.e., anti-Trinitarian)] elements.
Muslims hold that Islam is essentially the same belief as that of all the messengers sent by God to mankind since Adam, with the Qur'an (the one definitive text of the Muslim faith) codifying the final revelation of God. Islam views Judaism and Christianity as incomplete derivatives of the teachings of certain prophets—notably Abraham—and therefore acknowledges their Abrahamic roots, whilst the Qur'an calls them People of the Book.
According to the Qur'an Jesus is the Christ, the son of Mary, the Messenger of God. Further, that Jesus was given the Gospel as a Book from God, and Jesus came to confirm the Torah, and also to permit some of what was prohibited upon the sons of Israel for some reasons. It also teaches the Jesus the Christ is a Word from God, and a Messenger sent by Him.
Islam has three primary branches of belief, based largely on a historical disagreement over the succession of authority after Muhammad's death. These are known as Sunni, Shi'ite, and Kharijite.
Orthodoxy and Islam
The rise of Islam presented a major challenge to Orthodoxy. Beginning in the seventh century, major portions of the Orthodox heartlands (in Syria and Egypt) fell under Muslim rule. By the fifteenth century, most traditionally Orthodox lands were controlled either by Muslim or Roman Catholic rulers, with the exception of northeastern Russia (the Grand Principality of Moscow) and the Ethiopian highlands. The Orthodox generally accepted rule by non-Orthodox governments, provided that freedom of worship was guaranteed. In Ottoman lands, governed under the millet system (by which people were grouped by religion rather than nationality), Orthodox bishops also served as Ethnarchs (political rulers of their communities). Ottoman implementation of the devsirme tax system witnessed Orthodox children of the rural populations of the Balkans, the flower of Orthodox Christendom, conscripted before adolescence and brought up as Muslims. As their empire declined, the Ottoman Muslims became decreasingly tolerant of Orthodox Chrstians.
- A History of Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims
- Saints of the Orthodox Church who converted from Islam: St. Serapion of Kozheozero, St. Constantine Hagarit, St. Ahmed the Deftedar, St. Abu of Tbilisi, St. Peter and Stephan of Kazan.
- Orthodox Women Saints and Islam
- Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens on "Islam: The Extent of the Problematics”
- Zakaria Botros
- Roman Silantyev
- Daniel (Bambang Dwi) Byantoro
- Ottoman rule and Eastern Christianity
- New Martyr Fr. Daniel Sysoev
- Orthodoxy and Islam at Orthodox Christian Information Center.
- St. John of Damascus' Critique of Islam. Orthodox Christian Information Center.
- "Islam is a Different Culture". SPIEGEL ONLINE: Interview with Cardinal Walter Kasper, September 18, 2006.
- Islam and the West: Towards an Anti-Civilization. Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia: Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland website. (Argues that the so-called ‘clash of civilizations’ between the “west” and “islam” is not the real issue, rather, due to pervasive secularism, it is the clash between between “civilization” and “anti-civilization” that is the real threat).
- World Council of Churches. Living in Community: The Goal of Christian-Muslim Dialogue. October 20, 2008.
- Hilary Kilpatrick. Orthodox-Muslim Relations: The Search for Truth. In Communion: Website of Orthodox Peace Fellowship.
- Islam and the People of the Book. WikiIslam: critical articles dealing with Islam and its relationship with Christians and Jews.
- Sandro Magister. Christians, Islam and the Future of Europe. Chiesa News. 20.2.2006.
Human Rights and Persecution of Christians
- Rev. Fr. Raphael Moore. In Memory Of The 50 Million Victims Of The Orthodox Christian Holocaust. Compiled by Rev. Archimandrite Nektarios Serfes. Boise, Idaho, USA. October 1999.
- Persection.org (News on Christian Persecution).
- Muslim Persecution of Christians at Wikipedia.
- Armenian Genocide at Wikipedia.
- Pontic Greek Genocide at Wikipedia.
- Assyrian Genocide at Wikipedia.
- Dr. Otmar Oehring. TURKEY: Turkish Nationalism, Ergenekon, and Denial of Religious Freedom. Forum 18 News, 21 October 2008.
- (Dr. Otmar Oehring is Head of the Human Rights Office of the German Catholic charity Missio. A trial has begun in Turkey of influential people alleged to be part of an ultra-nationalist group, Ergenekon. The court case reveals 86 members, ranging from the Turkish police, army, business, politics, and the mass media, are alleged in a plan to assassinate the Ecumenical Patriarch, along with the murder of two Turkish Christians. Ergenekon members are alleged to have maintained deathlists of people, including Christians with a missionary background. The Malatya murder trial is revealing plausible links between Ergenekon, the "deep state" and the murders.)
- Luca Galassi (peacereporter.net). Iraq, The Pogrom of the Christians. Oct 27, 2008.
- Michael Coren. Michael Coren: The Jihad on Egypt's Christians. The National Post, Canada, October 23, 2008.
- Directions to Orthodoxy. Eritrea Imposes New Controls on Orthodox Church. 26 Dec, 2006.
- Abdullah Al-Araby. The Islamization of America: The Islamic Strategies and the Christian Response. Published by Booklocker.com, 2003. ISBN 978-0965668378
- Alvin J. Schmidt. The Great Divide: The Failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West. Regina Orthodox Press, 2004. ISBN 9781928653196
- Dr. N.L. Geiser and Abdul Saleeb. Answering Islam: The Crescent in Light of the Cross. 2nd edition. Baker Publishing, 2002. ISBN 9780801064302
- Bat Ye'or. The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh-Twentieth Century. Translated by Miriam Kochan. Published by Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996. 522pp. ISBN 9780838636886
- Christopher Deliso. The Coming Balkan Caliphate: The Threat of Radical Islam to Europe and the West. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 9780275995256
- David Gaunt, Jan Bet-Şawoce, Racho Donef. Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. Gorgias Press LLC, 2006. ISBN 9781593333010
- Pioneering historical investigation of the genocide of the Assyrian, Chaldean, and Syrian Christians of Upper Mesopotamia during World War I uses primary sources of Turkish, Russian, German, French, and Arabic origin, and oral histories by survivors and their descendants.
- Fr. John Meyendorff. "Byzantine Views of Islam." Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 18 (1964), pp.113-132.
- Fr. Nomikos Michael Vaporis. Witnesses for Christ: Orthodox Christian Neomartyrs of the Ottoman Period 1437-1860. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2000. 377 pp. ISBN 9780881411966
- Fr. Samir Khalil Samir (S.J.), Giorgio Paolucci, and Camille Eid. 111 Questions on Islam: Samir Khalil Samir on Islam and the West. Transl. by Wafik Nasry and Claudia Castellani. Ignatius Press, 2008. 200 pp. ISBN 9781586171551
- (Fr. Samir Khalil Samir, is an Islamic scholar, Semitologist, Orientalist and a Jesuit Catholic Theologian, based in Lebanon).
- Fr. (Dr.) Theodore Pulcini. Face to Face: A Guide for Orthodox Christians Encountering Muslims. Light and Life Pub Co.
- George Weigel. Faith, Reason, and the War Against Jihadism: A Call to Action. Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 9780385523783
- Nahed Mahmoud Metwalli. Islam Encounters Christ: A Fanatical Muslim's Encounter with Christ in the Coptic Orthodox Church. Transl. by Gamal Scharoubim. Light & Life Pub Co., 2002. ISBN 9781880971758
- Philip H. Lochhaas. How to Respond to Muslims. Concordia Publishing House, 1995. ISBN 9780570046776
- Prof. Bernard Lewis. The Roots of Muslim Rage. The Atlantic Monthly. Sep. 1990. pp.47-60 (pdf)
- ("In a hallmark essay in 1990 called “The Roots of Muslim Rage”, Bernard Lewis, an Anglo-American commentator on Islam, blamed a mentality twisted by history. He cited the obligation of holy war, dating from the faith’s turbulent birth and shaped by centuries of setbacks ranging from the retreat from Europe to Western imperialism, and even the challenge to Muslim male authority from rebellious children and emancipated women. The result was an inferiority complex, in which humiliation was compounded by Western ignorance." (Why they won’t calm down. The Economist. Sep 15th 2012.))
- Prof. Efraim Karsh. Islamic Imperialism: A History. Yale University Press, 2006. 288 pp. ISBN 9780300106039
- Robert I. Burns, S.J.. Christian-Islamic Confrontation in the West: The Thirteenth-Century Dream of Conversion. The American Historical Review. Vol.76, No.5, Dec. 1971. pp.1386-1434.
- Serge Trifkovic. Defeating Jihad. Regina Orthodox Press, 2006. 480pp. ISBN 192865326X
- Serge Trifkovic. The Sword of the Prophet: The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam: History, Theology, Impact on the World. Regina Orthodox Press, 2002. 300pp. ISBN 9781928653110
- Stuart Robinson and Peter Botross. Defying Death: Zakaria Botross - Apostle to Islam. CityHarvest Publications: Upper Mt Gravatt, Australia. 2008. 152 pp.
- The Orthodox Christian-Muslim Symposium. Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Edited by Fr. N.M. Vaporis. Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Brookline, Massachusetts, 1986. ISBN 0917651340
- Dr. Catharine Cookson, (J.D., Ph.D., 1952-2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom. Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003. pp.313.
- Dr. Catharine Cookson, (J.D., Ph.D., 1952-2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom. Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003. 555 pp.