Modificări

Salt la: navigare, căutare

Învierea Domnului

9.551 de octeți adăugați, 5 mai 2013 18:33
fără descrierea modificării
{{Traducere EN}}[[Image:Pascha.jpg|right|frame|Învierea Domnului<br>Coborârea la [[iad]]]]Învăţătura despre '''învierea Domnului''' nostru [[Iisus Hristos]] se află în centrul credinţei creştine: "Dacă Hristos n-a înviat, zadarnică este credinţa voastră", spune [[apostolul Pavel]] ([[Epistola I către Corinteni a Sfântului Apostol Pavel|I Corinteni]] 15, 17). Domnul Iisus Hristos, Fiul lui Dumnezeu, Unul din [[Sfânta Treime]], S-a [[Întruparea|întrupat]] pentru noi şi a noastră [[Soteriologie|mântuire]], a suferit, a fost dat la [[Moartea|moarte]] şi a treia zi a înviat din morţi ([[Crezul]]).
==Învierea Domnului şi lucrarea de răscumpărare a omului==
:''Articol principal: [[Sfintele Paşti]]''
[[Praznic]]ul Învierii Domnului, sau Sfintele Paşti, se află în centrul [[calendar]]ului [[Liturgică|liturgic]] al [[Biserica Ortodoxă|Bisericii creștine]].
 
==Iconografie==
În [[iconografie]], according to the Byzantine iconographic type, the Resurrection — as early as the eighth century — is portrayed primarily by the Descent of the Saviour into Hades. Our Lord is depicted pulling up [[Adam and Eve]] out of their sepulchers while trampling upon the gates of Hades (death). In the background stand the Old Testament patriarchs, [[prophet]]s, and other figures, including [[John the Forerunner]], who announced Jesus' advent.
 
:“This iconographic type represents the Lord in Hades surrounded by a radiant glory; He is trampling upon the demolished gates of Hell and bears in His left hand the Cross of the Resurrection, while with His right hand He raises from a sarcophagus Adam, who represents the human race.”<ref>Constantine D. Kalokyris. ''The Essence of Orthodox Iconography.'' Transl. Peter A. Chamberas. Brookline, MA: [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross School of Theology]], 1971. pp. 33.</ref>
 
It is very striking that St. [[John of Damascus]] (676-749) knows of an Icon of the Resurrection, which he considers consonant in every respect with the ecclesiastical tradition up to his time, and which he describes:
 
:“We have received Her [the Holy Church of God] from the Holy Fathers thus adorned, as the Divine Scriptures also teach us: to wit, with the Incarnate OEconomy of Christ,... the Annunciation of Gabriel to the Virgin, etc., the Nativity, etc....; and likewise, the Crucifixion, etc... ; the Resurrection, which is the joy of the world—how Christ tramples on Hades and raises up Adam.”<ref>St. [[John of Damascus]]. ''“Demonstrative Discourse Concerning the Holy and Precious Icons.”'' §3, Patrologia Græca, Vol. XCV, cols. 313D-316A.</ref>
 
One authoritative contemporary theologian, Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]] states that:
 
:“The Church decided to regard the Descent into Hades as a true Icon of the Resurrection.... The quintessential Icon of the Resurrection of Christ is considered to be His Descent into Hades... To be sure, there are also Icons of the Resurrection which depict Christ’s appearance to the [[Sunday of Myrrh-bearing Women|Myrrh-bearing women]] and the Disciples, but the Icon of the Resurrection ''par excellence'' is the shattering of death, which took place at the Descent of Christ into Hades, when His soul, together with His Divinity, went down into Hades and freed the souls of the Righteous ones of the [[Old Testament]], who were awaiting Him as their Redeemer.”<ref>Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos|Hierotheos of Naupaktos]]. ''Οἱ Δεσποτικὲς Ἑορτές [The feasts of the Lord].'' Lebadeia, Greece: Hiera Mone Genethliou tes Theotokou [Pelagias], 1995. pp.262,263.</ref>
 
By contrast, the Latin-style iconographic depiction of the Resurrection differs significantly. This type was created in the eleventh century in the West and became familiar through Giotto (Giotto di Bondone, 1266-1337), although its different forms, especially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, vary quite widely:
 
:“The Lord is represented holding a banner of victory as He is raised in the air as if by a vigorous jump from a sarcophagus tomb, whose slate covering is raised by an angel, obviously to permit Him to exit, while the guards are shown fallen upon the ground’; ‘[T]he Western type showing Christ jumping out of the grave was imposed upon Orthodox iconography during the [[Ottoman rule and Eastern Christianity|Turkish domination]] (especially from the 17th century) through the influence of the West. It became practically the prevalent Icon of the Resurrection, when in essence it is a type not only untraditional but unorthodox.”<ref>Kalokyris. ''The Essence of Orthodox Iconography.'' pp.33,35.</ref>
 
Orthodox theology regards the Latin/Western type, vis-à-vis the representation of the Resurrection, “as unhistorical, simply impressionistic, and essentially unorthodox,” and characterizes its adoption as “a compromise to the detriment of the Orthodox Tradition of worship and doctrine,” which “[is] in no way permissible,” since it leads “to artistic syncretism.”<ref>Kalokyris. ''The Essence of Orthodox Iconography.'' p.36.</ref>
 
The Orthodox Icon of the Resurrection is a [[Dogma|dogmatic]] Icon, that is, it expresses a dogmatic truth, the real meaning of the event and, as such, transcends the historical place and the temporal moment at which it occurred. “The quality of theological tradition is reflected in the Icon of the Resurrection, which requires a purely mystical interpretation of this event.”<ref>Michel Quenot. ''Ἡ Ἀνάσταση καὶ ἡ Εἰκόνα [The Resurrection and the Icon].'' Katerine: Ekdoseis “Tertios,” 1998. p.94.</ref> This dogmatic Icon of the Resurrection highlights, with truly exceptional emphasis, not an individual historical event (the bodily Resurrection of the Saviour), nor an historical moment (the Saviour’s egress from the Tomb), but, rather, the dogma of the abolition of Hades and death as well as the Resurrection of humanity. “The Resurrection of Christ is simultaneously also the Resurrection of humanity; the Resurrection is not only the Resurrection of Christ,” but a majestic universal event, a “cosmic event”;<ref>Branos. ''Θεωρία Ἁγιογραφίας.'' pp.216,217.</ref> “Christ does not come out of the tomb but out from ‘among the dead,’ ''ek nekron'', ‘coming up out of devastated Hades as from a nuptial palace.’”<ref>Paul Evdokimov. ''The Art of the Icon: A Theology of Beauty.'' Transl. Fr. Steven Bigham. Redondo Beach, CA: Oakwood Publications, 1990. p.325.</ref>
 
The Resurrection, according to the Western type, “portrays a historical moment,” that is, it essentially “starts from Christ’s egress from the tomb,”<ref>Branos. ''Θεωρία Ἁγιογραφίας.'' pp.225.</ref> Whereas according to the Orthodox type, “it reveals, that is, makes manifest the victory of the Cross; the Descent into Hades is already a Resurrection; the great ''triduum mortis'' constitutes the mystical days in which the Resurrection is accomplished.”<ref>Protopresbyter [[Georges Florovsky]]. ''“Ὁ Σταυρικὸς Θάνατος” [Of the death on the Cross].'' In: Ἀνατομία Προβλημάτων τῆς Πίστεως [An analysis of matters of faith]. Transl. Archim. Meletios Kalamaras. Thessalonica: Ekdoseis Bas. Regopoulou, 1977. pp.79-81.</ref>
 
The Holy Resurrection of Our Savior, as a mystery, was invisible and outside the laws and processes of other resurrections, since through the Resurrection and in the Resurrection we do not have a simple resuscitation of the Master’s Body and its egress from the sepulchre, as, for example, in the case of St. [[Lazarus]] (a miracle perceptible to all, and the [eventual] return of his body to corruption), but its transition, as being henceforth “one with God” [ὁμόθεος] and, in an ineffable mystery, to uncreated reality; that is, we have an ontological transformation. A lucid commentary on this Patristic viewpoint is provided by Leonid Ouspensky, who writes:
 
:“The unfathomable character of this event for the human mind, and the consequent impossibility of depicting it, is the reason for the absence, in traditional Orthodox iconography, [of any depiction] of the actual moment of the Resurrection.”<ref>[[Leonid Alexandrovich Ouspensky|Leonid Ouspensky]], in Leonid Ouspensky and [[Vladimir Lossky]]. ''The Meaning of Icons.'' Transl. G.E.H. Palmer and E. Kadloubovsky. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1982. pp.187,185.</ref>
 
The so-called Byzantine type then, as the authentically Orthodox dogmatic Icon of the Resurrection renders perceptible the Resurrectional [[Apolytikion]]:
 
:'''"Christ is risen from the dead, trampling down death by death, and upon those in the tombs bestowing life."'''
 
==Galerie de imagini==
<center>
'''Descent Into Hades / Harrowing of Hell'''
<gallery>
Image:Anastasis-icon-from-chios.jpg|Anastasis, [[Nea Moni of Chios]], Greece, 11th c.
 
Image:Hosios Loukas ANASTASIS.jpg|Anastasis, Hosios Loukas Monastery, Greece, 11th c.
 
File:Anastasis - San Marco, Venice.jpg|Anastasis, St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, 12th c.
 
Image:Sleguvanje od Pekolot Kurbinovo.jpg|Anastasis, Kurbinovo,<br>12th c.
 
Image:Anastasis-chora1024.jpg|The Anastasis fresco in the parekklesion of the [[Church of the Holy Saviour in the Country (Istanbul,Turkey)|Chora Church]], Istanbul, 14th c.
 
Image:Voskresenie od Ohrid.jpg|Anastasis, Ochrid, 14th c.
 
Image:ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΗ 14thcentury GreekAnastasisIcon.jpg|Anastasis, 14th c.
 
Image:Resurrection.jpg|Resurrection.<br>Theophanes the Cretan, 16th c.
 
Image:5part-icon.jpeg|Five part Resurrection icon, [[Solovetsky Monastery]]<br>17th c.
 
Image:Resurrection1.jpg|Resurrection.
</gallery>
'''Myrrh-Bearing Women / Angel at the Tomb'''
<gallery>
Image:RabulaGospelsCrucifixion.jpg|The earliest crucifixion in an illuminated manuscript, also shows the resurrection.<br>[[w:Rabbula Gospels|Rabbula Gospels]], 6th c.
 
Image:Entombent ingeborg.jpg|Myrrh-bearers at the tomb.<br>Miniature from Ingeborg Psalter, 13th c.
 
Image:Women grave kizhi.jpg|Myrrhbearing Women at the Tomb of Christ,<br>Kizhi, Russia, 18th c.
 
Image:Pascha 2.jpg|Myrrh-Bearing Women at the Tomb of Christ.
 
Image:Agelos anastaseos kiriou.jpg|Angel of the Resurrection.
</gallery>
</center>
==A se vedea și==
*http://www.nistea.com/invierea-domnului.htm - texte la Învierea Domnului şi Săptămâna Luminată
*http://www.credo.ro/INVIEREA-DOMNULUI__Sfintele-Pasti.php - materiale scrise şi audio despre Învierea Domnului
 
==Note==
<references />
[[Categorie:Teologie]]
Birocrați, interwiki, renameuser, Administratori
15.902 modificări

Meniu de navigare