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Biserica din Alexandria (coptă)

398 de octeți adăugați, 24 iulie 2008 05:26
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[[Image:ChristCopticArt.jpg|frame|Coptic icon of ChristIcoană coptă a Mântuitorului]]The '''Coptic Orthodox ChurchBiserica Ortodoxă Coptă''' is the portion of the este o parte din [[Church of Biserica Ortodoxă din Alexandria]] which broke from the Byzantine churches in the wake of the care s-a separat de bisericile bizantine în urma [[Fourth Ecumenical CouncilSinodul IV Ecumenic|Sinodului IV Ecumenic]] in Chalcedon in de la Calcedon din 451. Sharing a common heritage before with the Chalcedonian Church of Având o istorie comună cu Biserica din AlexandriaCalcedoniană, it traces its origins to the îşi are rădăcinile în propovăduirea [[Apostle MarkApostolul Marcu|Sfântului Apostol Marcu]]. The church is one of the Biserica Coptă face parte din grupul bisericilor [[Oriental OrthodoxyBiserici ortodoxe orientale|Oriental Orthodoxortodoxe orientale]] churches. Its leader is the Coptic Pope of Întâistătătorul ei este Papa Copt din Alexandria, currently în prezent [[Shenouda al III -lea (Gayyid) of de Alexandria|Pope Papa Shenouda al III-lea]]. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Alexandria cares for about are aproximativ 18 million Coptic Orthodox Christians in Egypt and abroadmilioane de credincioşi creştini ortodocşi copţi în Egipt şi în lumea largă. Pe lângă acestea, besides being the Mother Church of both the Ethiopian and este biserica mamă pentru Bisericle Ortodoxe din [[Church of EritreaEtiopia (coptă)|Etiopia]] şi din [[Eritreea (coptă)|EritreanEritreea]] Orthodox Churches. More than Mai mult de 95% of the Christians of Egypt are Coptic Orthodoxdin creştinii din Egipt sunt ortodocşi copţi, but other dar exist şi alte "Patriarchates/Patriarchs of Patriarhii de Alexandria" also exist (Coptic Catholiccatolici copţi, Greek/Latin Catholic and Greek Orthodox catolici greci-latini şi ortodocşi greci - see vezi mai jos 'Coptic Christianity TodayCreştinismul copt în zilele noastre' below), as well as small Protestant and Anglican denominationsla fel ca şi mici comunităţi de protestanţi şi anglicani.{{orientalchurchesBisericiorientale}}
The Coptic Church regards itself as having never believed in Biserica Coptă însăşi consideră că niciodată nu a adoptat [[monophysitismmonofizism]] the way it was portrayed in the Council of Chalcedonul în forma în care este combătut de Sinodul de la Calcedon, but rather as having always believed in în schimb fiind adepta [[miaphysitismmiafizism]] ului (o doctrină pe care bisericile orientale ortodoxe o privesc ca fiind corectă şi ortodoxă. În acel sinod, monofizismul a doctrine that [[Oriental Orthodox]] Churches regard as correct and orthodoxfost definit ca fiind credinţa într-o singură fire (natură)a lui Iisus Hristos. In that council, monophysitism meant believing in one nature of Jesus Christ. Copts believe that the Lord is Copţii mărturisesc că Domnul este perfect in his divinity, and he is în divinitatea Sa şi că este perfect in his humanityîn umanitatea Sa, but his divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called dar divinitatea şi umanitaea Sa erau erau unite într-o singură fire (natură) numită "the nature of the incarnate Wordfirea Cuvântului întrupat," which was articulated by St. definiţie dată de Sfâtul [[Cyril of Chiril de Alexandria]]. Copts thus believe in two natures Astfel, copţii mărturisesc două firi "humanumană" and şi "divinedivină" that are united in one care sunt unite într-una singură "without fără mingling, without confusion, and without alterationfără confuzie şi fără stricăciune" (from the declaration of faith at the end of the Coptic divine liturgydin declaraţia de credinţă de la sfârşitul Sfintei Liturghii copte). These two natures Aceste două firi "did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eyenu se separă nici o clipă sau nici cât o clipire de ochi" (also from the declaration of faith at the end of the Coptic divine liturgyde asemenea din declaraţia de credinţă de la sfârşitul Sfintei Liturghii copte).
==HistoryIstoric==[[Image:CopticAltar.jpg|thumb|200px|right|A Coptic altar in JerusalemAltar copt din Ierusalim]] Egypt is often identified as the place of refuge that the Egiptul este adesea considerat ca fiind locul de refugiu al [[The Holy Family in EgyptSfânta Familie în Egipt|Holy FamilySfintei Familii]] sought in its flight from Judeala fuga lor din Iudeea: "When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, ''Out of Egypt I called My Son'' ([[Gospel of MatthewEvanghelia după Matei|MatthewMatei]] 2:12-23). The Egyptian Church, which is now more than nineteen centuries old, was the subject of many prophecies in the [[Old Testament]]. [[Isaiah]] the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the LORD at its border."
The first Christians in Egypt were mainly Alexandrian Jews such as Theophilus, whom the [[Apostle LukeApostolul Luca]] addresses in the introductory chapter of his [[Gospel of LukeEvanghelia după Luca|gospelEvangheliei]]. When the church was founded by [[Apostle MarkApostolul Marcu|MarkMarcu]] during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians (as opposed to Greeks or Jews) embraced the Christian faith. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Mark's arrival in Alexandria as is clear from the [[New Noul Testament|Noului Testament]] writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year 200 AD, and a fragment of the [[Gospel of JohnEvanghelia după Ioan]], written in Coptic, which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century. In the second century Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, namely Coptic.
=== The Catechetical School of Şcoala Catehetică din Alexandria ===The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around 190 by the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as [[Athenagoras of Athens|Athenagoras]], [[Clement of AlexandriadinAlexandria|Clement]], [[Didymus the BlindDidim cel Orb|DidymusDidim]], and the great [[Origen]], who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Origen wrote over 6,000 commentaries of the [[BibleSfânta Scriptură|Biblie]] in addition to his famous ''[[Hexapla]]''. Many scholars such as St. [[JeromeIeronim]] visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. The question and answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.
The Theological college of the catechetical school of Alexandria was re-established in 1893. The new school currently has campuses in Alexandria, Cairo, New Jersey, and Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, history, Coptic language and art—including chanting, music, [[iconography]], and tapestry.
=== Monasticism and missionary work Activitate monastică şi misionară===In the third century, during the persecution of Decius, some Christians fled to the desert, and remained there to pray after the persecutions abated. This was the beginning of the [[monasticism|monastic movement]], which was reorganized by the saints [[Anthony the GreatAntonie cel Mare]] and [[Pachomius the Great|PachomiusPahomie cel Mare]] in the 4th century. By the end of the century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian hills. A number of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations till this day.
Egyptian monasticism attracted the attention of Christians in other parts of the world, who visited Egypt, many bringing monastic ideas home with them, and spreading monasticism through the Christian world. St. [[Basil the GreatVasile cel Mare]], organizer of the monastic movement in Asia Minor visited Egypt around AD 357 and his rule is followed by the eastern churches; St. Jerome, en route to Jerusalem, stopped in Egypt and left details of his experiences in his letters; St. [[Benedict of din Nursia]] founded monasteries in the 6th century on the model of Pachomius, but in a stricter form.
===Council of ChalcedonSinodul de la Calcedon===[[Image:StMarkCathAlex.jpg|thumb|St Mark Coptic Cathedral in Catedrala coptă Sfântul Marcu din Alexandria]]{{orientalOriental}}
By the time the [[Fourth Ecumenical CouncilSinodul IV Ecumenic|Council of ChalcedonSinodul de la Calcedon]] was called, politics had already started to intermingle with Church affairs. When the Emperor Marcianus interfered with matters of faith in the Church, the response of [[Pope Saint Dioscorus Papa Sfântul Dioscor I of din Alexandria (Coptic POV)|Dioscorus of Dioscor din Alexandria]] (the Pope of Alexandria who was later to be exiled) to this interference was clear: "You have nothing to do with the Church." It was at Chalcedon that the emperor would take his revenge for the Pope's frankness.
The Council of Chalcedon abandoned Cyrillian terminology and declared that Christ was one hypostasis in two natures. However, in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, "Christ was conceived of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary," thus the foundation according to non-Chalcedonians is made clear. In terms of Christology the Oriental understanding is that Christ is "One Nature--the Logos Incarnate," ''of'' the full humanity and full divinity. The Byzantine understanding is that Christ is ''in'' two natures, full humanity and full divinity. (Just as all of us are of our mother and father and not in our mother and father, so too is the nature of Christ. If Christ is in full humanity and in full divinity, then He is separate in two persons as the [[Nestorianism|Nestorians]] teach. Imagine your nature in your mother and your father; you are then two different people. If however your nature is of your mother and your father, then you are one person [].) This is the linguistic difference which separated the Orientals from the Byzantines.
The Coptic Church regards herself as having been misunderstood at the Council of Chalcedon. Some Copts believe that perhaps the Council understood the Church correctly, but wanted to exile the Church, to isolate her and to abolish the Egyptian, independent Pope, who maintained that Church and State should remain separate. The Coptic Church regarded that the ousting of Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria in the council of Chalcedon was in part due to the rivalry between the Bishops of Alexandria and Rome. The Tome of Pope Leo of Rome was considered influenced by Nestorian philosophy. It is important to note that Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria was never labeled as heretic by the council's canons. Copts also believe that the Pope of Alexandria was forcibly prevented from attending the third congregation of the council in which he was ousted, which apparently was a result of the conspiracy tailored by the Roman delegates. For further info, please refer to [ this key paper] on the subject by Professor Fr. [[John S. Romanides]], a prominent Greek Orthodox scholar.
Before the current positive era of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox dialogues, Chalcedonians sometimes used to call the non-Chalcedonians "[[Monophysitismmonofizism|monophysites]]", though the Coptic Church denies that she teaches monophysitism, which she has always regarded as a heresy. They have sometimes called the Chalcedonian group "[[Dyophysitismdiofizism|dyophysites]]". A term that comes closer to Coptic doctrine is "[[Miaphysitismmiafizism|miaphysite]]" [], which refers to a conjoined nature for Christ, both human and divine, united indivisibly in the Incarnate Logos. The Coptic Church believes that Christ is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by [[Cyril of Alexandria|Saint Cyril of Alexandria]]. Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one hypostasis ''without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration''. These two natures ''did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eye'' (Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil of Caesarea).
Copts suffered under the rule of the Byzantine [[Eastern Imperiul Roman Empirede Răsărit]]. The Melkite Patriarchs, appointed by the emperors as both spiritual leaders and civil governors, massacred the Egyptian population whom they considered heretics. Many Egyptians were tortured and martyred to accept the terms of Chalcedon, but Egyptians remained loyal to the faith of their fathers and to the Cyrillian view of [[ChristologyHristologie]]. One of the most renowned Egyptian saints of that period is Saint [[Samuel the ConfessorMărturisitorul]].
===The Arab conquest of EgyptCucerirea arabă a Egiptului===
The [ Arab conquest of Egypt] took place in AD 641. Although the Imperial forces resisted the Arab army under Amr ibn al-As, the majority of the civilian population, having suffered persecution for the differing Christian beliefs, were less hostile; in some cases they welcomed their new masters. Considered "People of the Book", Christians were allowed to practice their religion, under the restrictions of the [[Islam]]ic Shari'a law. This protection stemmed in part from a Hadith of Muhammad (whose Egyptian wife had been the only one to bear a male child) that advised "When you conquer Egypt, be kind to the Copts for they are your proteges and kith and kin" and in part from a need to have capable administrators.
Despite the political upheaval, Egypt remained a predominently Christian land, although gradual conversions to Islam over the centuries had the effect of changing Egypt from a predominantly Christian to a predominantly Muslim country by the end of the 12th century. This process was sped along by persecutions during and following the reign of the mad Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (reigned AD 996-1021) and the Crusades, and also by the acceptance of Arabic as a liturgical language by the Pope of Alexandria, Gabriel ibn-Turaik.
===From the 19th century to the Din secolul al XIX-lea până la revoluţia din 1952 revolution===
The position of the Copts began to improve early in the 19th century under the stability and tolerance of Muhammad Ali's dynasty. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit and, by 1855, the main mark of Copts' inferiority, the ''Jizya'' tax, was lifted. Shortly thereafter, Christians started to serve in the Egyptian army. The 1919 revolution in Egypt, the first grassroots display of Egyptian identity in centuries, stands as a witness to the homogeneity of Egypt's modern society with both its Muslim and Christian components. However, recently (2005-2006) Christians have unfortunately been persecuted in various parts of Egypt.
==Coptic Christianity todayCreştinismul copt astăzi==[[Image:Coptic festival.jpg|thumb|450px|left|Coptic Festival in Upper EgyptSărbătoare coptă în Egiptul de Sus.]]The current Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria is Pope [[Shenouda III (Gayyid) of Alexandria|Shenouda III]]. There is a small [[Coptic Catholic Church]] ([[Eastern Rite Catholic]]) established in the 19th century and headed by a Patriarch of Alexandria in communion with the Pope of Rome. The [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church]] has little presence in Egypt, but is headed by a Patriarch of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
By some accounts there are about 60 million Coptic Orthodox Christians in the world: they are found primarily in Egypt (roughly 15 million), Ethiopia (roughly 38 million []), and Eritrea (roughly 2 million), but there are significant numbers in North America, Europe, Australia, Sudan and Israel, and in diaspora throughout the world making approximately another 3 to 4 million. However, as applied to the [[Church of Ethiopia|Tewahedo Church of Ethiopia]], which in 1959 was granted her first own Patriarch by Coptic Pope [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria|Cyril VI of Alexandria]], the word ''Coptic'' can be considered a misnomer because it means ''Egyptian''. The [[Church of Eritrea|Eritrean Orthodox Church]] similarly became independent of the Tewahedo Church during the 1990s. These three churches remain in [[full communion]] with each other and with the other [[Oriental Orthodoxy|Oriental Orthodox]] churches.
Since the 1980s theologians from the the Oriental Orthodox and Chalcedonian Orthodox churches have been meeting in a bid to resolve the theological differences, and have concluded that many of the differences are caused by the two groups using different terminology to describe the same thing (see [[Agreed Official Statements on Christology with the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches]]). In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria [[Pastoral Agreement between the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria (2001)|agreed]] to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other's churches, making rebaptisms unnecessary, and to recognize the sacrament of marriage as celebrated by the other. Previously, if a Coptic and Greek wanted to marry, the marriage had to be performed twice, once in each church, for it to be recognized by both. Now it can be done in only one church and be recognized by both.
The Coptic Orthodox Church also has her own distinguished Coptic art [], []; iconography [], [], []; and architecture [], [].
==Coptic Orthodox churches around the world todayBiserici ortodoxe copte în lume==
*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Africa]]
*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Asia]]
===Australia and Oceania===
*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Australia]]
===EuropeEuropa===*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in EuropeBiserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Europa]]
===North Americade Nord===*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in the United StatesBiserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Statele Unite]] *See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Canada]]
===South Americade Sud===*See Vezi [[Coptic Orthodox Church in South Biserica Ortodoxă Coptă din Americade Sud]]
==Sfinţi ai Bisericii Copte==
'''''Notă:''' Unii din cei menționați menţionaţi aici nu sunt înscriși înscrişi ca sfinți sfinţi în calendarul Bisericii Ortodoxe (calcedoniene).''
* [[Abanoub]]
*[[Moise Arapul]] القديس موسى الأسود
* [[Mina (Rizk) AvaMina]]
* [[Pahomie cel Mare|Pahomie]], părintele monahismului de obște obşte القديس باخوم أب الشركة
* [[Barsoum El-Erian|Parsoma (Barsoum El-Erian)]] الأنبا برسوم العريان
* [[Pavel, primul sihastru|Pavel Sihastrul]]
*[[Verena]] القديسة فيرينا
==See alsoVezi şi==*[[List of Coptic PopesLista Papilor Copţi]]*[[:CategoryCategorie:Coptic interpretations of the Fourth Ecumenical CouncilInterpretarea coptă a Sinodului IV Ecumenic]]*[[Heritage of the Coptic Orthodox ChurchMoştenirea Bisericii ortodoxe copte]]*[[The French Coptic Orthodox ChurchBiserica ortodoxă coptă franceză]]*[[British Orthodox Church Biserica ortodoxă (Copticcoptă)britanică]]
==SourceIzvoare==* Portions of this article taken from Fragmente din acest articol au fost luate din [[Wikipedia:Coptic Christianity]]
==External linksLegături externe==
* [ Official Website of HH Pope Shenouda III]
* [ Official Website of Coptic Orthodox Diocese in the Midlands & Affiliated Regions U.K.]
* [ Coptic Website in France, Autor Mikhail David]
* [ ''Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity'' by Dr. Otto F. A. Meinardus (368 pages - Cairo: AUC Press, 2002)]
* [ ''Traditional Egyptian Christianity: A History of the Coptic Orthodox Church'' by Rev. Fr. Prof. Theodore H. Partrick (226 pages - Fisher Park Press, 1996)]
[[Categorie:Ortodoxie Orientală|Alexandria]]
[[Categorie:Coptic Orthodox ChurchBiserica Ortodoxă Coptă]]
[[Categorie:Jurisdicţii|Alexandria (coptă)]]
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