Modificări

Salt la: navigare, căutare

Cezareea

4.882 de octeți adăugați, 11 aprilie 2013 11:46
fără descrierea modificării
{{CiornăTraducere EN}}
'''Cezareea''' (în latină: Caesarea, ebraică: קֵיסָרְיָה‎, greacă: Καισάρεια, arabă: قيسارية‎) a fost un oraş din antichitate, port la Marea Mediterană, pe coasta răsăriteană a acesteia. Mai este cunoscut şi sub numele de ''Cezareea Maritima'' sau ''Cezareea Palestinei''. Amplasamentul vechii cetăţi se afla între actualele oraşe Tel Aviv şi Haifa din Israel. Cezareea a fost un important centru al creştinătăţii în primul mileniu al erei noastre.
==Ancient beginnings==
Caesarea had its origin in the Greek city of antiquity called Pyrgos Stratonos. King Herod the Great changed the name to Caesarea in honor of the Roman emperor Augustus. On the site of Pyrgos Stratonos Herod constructed a majestic city of temples, palaces, a theater, amphitheater, and a major port often referred to as '''Caesarea Maritima''' (Greek: παράλιος Καισάρεια). The city became the capital of Judaea in the year 6 AD and the residence of the Roman procurators. The Roman emperors Vespasian and Titus made it a Roman colony, called Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea. In 133, its name became '''Caesarea Palæstina'''.
==Christian era==
As the Christian era began, Caesarea became the political center of Roman rule in the area now termed the [[Holy Land]]. The city was the civilian and military capital of Judaea Province and the official residence of the Roman procurators, governors, and praefectus, including Pontius Pilatus and Antonius Felix.
 
The city was an important center of early Christianity. In the [[New Testament]], the city is mentioned in the [[Acts of the Apostles|Book of Acts]] in connection with the activities of the Apostles [[Apostle Peter|Peter]], [[Apostle Philip|Philip]], and [[Apostle Paul |Paul]]. It was in Caesarea that Peter [[baptism|baptized]] the centurion Cornelius. Paul was imprisoned in Caesarea before being sent to Rome for trial. According to the first-century historian Flavius [[Josephus]], the Jewish revolt against Rome, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70, was touched off by an incident at Caesarea in 66. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Caesarea became the principal city in Palestine.
 
It wasn't until the late second century that Caesarea recorded its first [[bishop]], Zacchaeus the Publican, and the city began to develop a Christian prominence. It was the site of a [[synod|council]], about 196, that involved regulation of the celebration of [[Pascha]]. Caesarea became the ecclesiastical metropolis of Palaestina Prima, subject to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarch of Antioch]] which, until 451, was itself senior to the [[Church of Jerusalem|Bishop of Jerusalem]]. Included among Caesarea's bishops were such personalities as the historian [[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]].
 
In 231, [[Origen]] arrived in Caesarea after fleeing Alexandria where he had been banished by Bp. [[Demetrius of Alexandria]] for his unauthorized [[ordination]] as a [[priest]] and made it his permanent home. There, he established a theological school with the scholarly priest [[Pamphilius of Caesarea]] who had a reputation for having an extensive ecclesiastical library of over 30,000 manuscripts. While the collection at the library suffered during the persecutions, the collection was restored by the bishops of Caesarea.
 
The library's presence contributed to the scholarship that came from Caesarea. Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea and the first Church historian, is famous for his works that include his books on Church history (Historia Ecclesiastica) and a geographical-historical study of the Holy Land (Onomasticon).
 
In the sixth century, a major [[church]], the Martyrion of the Holy Procopius, was built over the remains of a Roman temple on the podium. The church was a 125 foot octagonal building set in a 150 foot square precinct.
 
==Decline==
In 639, Caesarea was overrun by the Arabs after which the population of the city declined. The twelfth century brought the crusades and almost two centuries of warfare. In 1101, Baldwin I, who led a Frankish army of crusaders, took the city from the Arabs. The city became the seat of a Latin [[archbishop]] in a crusader built [[cathedral]]. An aspect of the crusader occupation of Caesarea is the storied finding of the legendary Holy Grail in Caesarea. Late in the twelfth century Caesarea was taken by Saladin before Richard the Lionhearted of England recaptured it four years later.
 
Louis IX, King of France, rebuilt the fortifications of Caesarea in 1251, before the city was attacked by the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in 1265. After he had taken the city, Baibars razed the city's fortifications to prevent their re-use by the crusaders. Caesarea, then, faded into history.
==Alte oraşe antice cu numele Cezareea==
[[Cezareea Capadociei]] (locul de naştere a Sf. [[Vasile cel Mare]]) a fost, timp de secole, centrul unei vieţi creştine înfloritoare.
Cezareea [[Antiohia|Antiohiei]], în Pisidia, a fost un important centru creştin şi scena de mai multe [[sinod|sinoade]]uri ale Bisericii, până în secolul al VIII-lea, când a fost distrus de raidurile arabilor.
Acestea, precum şi alte oraşe cu numele de Cezareea, au fost de asemenea locul [[martir]]iului mai multor [[sfinţi]].
==Surse==
*[[Wikipedia:Caesarea_Maritima]]
*[http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Early%20History%20-%20Archaeology/Caesarea-%20from%20Roman%20City%20to%20Crusader%20Fortress Caesarea: from Roman City to Crusader Fortress]
*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03134b.htm Caesarea Palaestinae]
*[http://www.bibarch.com/ArchaeologicalSites/Caesarea-Maritima.htm Caesarea Maritima]
*[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/88235/Caesarea Britannica: Caesarea]
==Legături externe==
*[http://www.bibleplaces.com/caesarea.htm Caesarea Maritima]
*[http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/caesarea.htm Caesarea]
*[[Wikipedia:Caesarea]]
 
[[Categorie:Țara Sfântă]]
Birocrați, interwiki, renameuser, Administratori
16.067 de modificări

Meniu de navigare