Iustinian I: Diferență între versiuni
|Linia 4:||Linia 4:|
. , a () , , . sa [].
, s. -, a . a a , , , . .
a 548; , [] 565.
==Realizări legislative şi militare==
==Realizări legislative şi militare==
Versiunea de la data 19 iunie 2008 17:57
| Acest articol (sau părți din el) este propus spre traducere din limba engleză!
Dacă doriți să vă asumați acestă traducere (parțial sau integral), anunțați acest lucru pe pagina de discuții a articolului.
Sfântul şi drept-credinciosul împărat Iustinian I (11 mai, 483 – 13 noiembrie/14, 565) a fost Împărat al Imperiului Roman de Răsărit de la 1 august 527, până la moartea sa, în noiembrie 565. Soţia sa a fost Împărăteasa Teodora. În afara faptului că a fost unul din cei mai importanţi conducători ai antichităţii târzii şi o figură majoră în istoria imperiului bizantin, Iustinian a fost de asemenea şi un campion al Ortodoxiei şi un ctitor de biserici. În timpul domniei sale Bizanţul a câştigat glorie prin victorii militare în Persia, Africa şi Italia, care au avut ca rezultat dezrădăcinarea păgânismului printre germanii vandali şi triburile vizigote. Iustinian este cunoscut şi sub numele de "ultimul împărat roman", fiind împăratul care a recucerit Roma din mâinile ostrogoţilor. Biserica îl prăznuieşte pe Iustinian pe data de 14 noiembrie.
Numele întreg al lui Iustinian a fost Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus. Se spune că a fost cu descendenţă slavă, si că s-a născut probabil într-un mic orăşel numit Tauresium din Iliria, lângă Scupi (actuala Skopje din Macedonia) pe data de 11 mai 483, din Vigilantia. Mama lui, Vigilantia, a fost sora mult stimatului general Iustin, care s-a ridicat din rândurile armatei pentru a deveni împărat. Unchiul său l-a adoptat şi a asigurat educaţia băiatului. Iustinian a fost foarte bine educat în jurisprudenţă, teologie şi istorie romană. Cariera sa militară s-a caracterizat printr-o avansare rapidă deschisă pentru el în 518, când Iustin a devenit împărat (518–527). Iustinian a fost numit consul în 521, iar mai târziu comandant al armatei din est. El funcţiona practic ca regent cu mult înainte ca Iustin să-l fi făcut asociat la împărăţie, pe data de 1 aprilie 527.
Patru luni mai târziu, Iustinian a devenit suveran unic la moartea lui Iustin. Administrarea sa a avut un impact mondial, constituind o epocă distinctă în istoria imperiului bizantin şi a Bisericii Ortodoxe. El a fost un om cu o capacitate neobisnuită de muncă (uneori era numit "împăratul care nu doarme niciodată") şi poseda un caracter temperat, afabil şi vioi, dar era în egală măsură şi fără scrupule şi viclean când era nevoie. El a fost ultimul împărat care a încercat să refacă imperiul roman în teritoriile de care s-a bucurat sub Teodosie I.
S-a înconjurat de bărbaţi şi femei cu talent extraordinar, "oameni noi" aleşi nu neapărat din rândurile aristocraţiei, ci pe baza meritului lor. În anul 523 s-a căsătorit cu Teodora, care era curtezană de meserie (sau actriţă, sau de la circ, după mai multe surse) şi era cu 20 de ani mai tânără decât el. Conform istoricului Procopie, notoriu pentru ura sa calomnioasă faţă de cuplul regal, se spune că Iustinian ar fi întâlnit-o pe Teodora la un spectacol în care ea şi o gâscă dresată jucau Leda şi lebăda, o piesă care a reuşit să batjocorească mitologia geacă şi moralitatea creştină în acelaşi timp. Iustinian fusese incapabil să se căsătorească cu ea înainte, datorită clasei sale sociale, dar unchiul său împăratul Iustin I a decretat o lege care permitea căsătoria între persoane din clase sociale diferite. Teodora a devenit foarte influentă în politica imperiului, iar mai târziu, împăraţii care au urmat lui Iustinian, pe baza precedentului creat de acesta, s-au căsătorit cu persoane din afara clasei aristocrate. Căsătoria a fost o sursă de scandal, dar Teodora a dat dovadă de foarte multă inteligenţă, înţelepciunea simplă şi de bun simţ, de o bună judecată, fiind totodată cel mai mare susţinător al lui Iustinian.
Teodora a murit în 548; Iustinian i-a supravieţuit încă aproape 20 de ani, murind pe 13 sau 14 noiembrie 565.
Realizări legislative şi militare
Justinian achieved lasting influence for his judicial reforms, notably the summation of all Roman law, something that had never been done before. Justinian commissioned quaestor Tribonian to the task, and he issued the first draft of the Corpus Juris Civilis on April 7, 529, in three parts: Digesta (or Digest or Pandectae), Institutiones (or Institutes), and the Codex. The Corpus forms the basis of Latin jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical canon law: "ecclesia vivit lege romana," "the Church lives under Roman law"). It ensured the survival of Roman law, which would pass to the West in the 12th century and later to Eastern Europe, including Russia. It remains influential to this day.
Iustinian şi Ortodoxia
Justinian viewed himself as the new Constantine the Great. He believed in a Mediterranean-wide Christian order politically, religiously and economically, united and ruled from Constantinople under a single Christian emperor. To this end he directed his great wars and his colossal activity in reconquering the western provinces from the Germanic tribes.
Perhaps the most noteworthy event occurred in 529 when the Academy in Athens (famous for being founded centuries earlier by Plato) was placed under state control by order of Justinian, effectively strangling this training school for Hellenism. Paganism was actively suppressed. The worship of Ammon at Augila in the Libyan desert was abolished, and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis on the island of Philae, in Egypt, and unrepentant Manicheans were executed in Constantinople. Justinian frequently sent out missionaries and converted numerous tribes. In Asia Minor alone, John, Bishop of Ephesus, converted 70,000 pagans.
Justinian also took a very firm stance in his support of Orthodoxy; he fought different heresies throughout his rule. At the beginning of his reign, he promulgated by law belief in the Holy Trinity and the Incarnation, and subsequently declared that he would deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy due process of law. He made the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed the sole symbol of the Church and accorded legal force to the canons of the four Ecumenical Councils. At the command of the sovereign, the Fifth Ecumenical Council was convened in the year 553, censuring the teachings of Origen and affirming the definitions of the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon. He also attempted to secure religious unity within the Empire through his (unsuccessful) dialogues with the non-Chalcedonians. He appointed Theodora, a convert from Monophysitism, as his special envoy to deal with those who rejected Chalcedon. Besides Monophysitism, other ecclesiastical tensions had begun to emerge between the East and the West; the "Three Chapters" controversy brought all of these to a head (cf. external links).monastery at Sinai, and the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Under St. Justinian many churches were built dedicated to the Theotokos. Since he had received a broad education, St. Justinian assiduously concerned himself with the education of clergy and monks, ordering them to be instructed in rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending monasticism: his law codes contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests, and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, and episcopal jurisdiction.
Justinian's standardization of the Divine Liturgy included introducing the Cherubic Hymn, and two oft-used troparia of the Church, Only Begotten Son and O Gladsome Light are traditionally accredited to him.
In his personal life, St. Justinian was strictly pious, and he fasted often. During Great Lent he would not eat bread nor drink wine, but lived on only water and vegetables. He is also remembered for promoting the idea of "symphony" between church and state.
However, Justinian is often criticized by secular sources as a despot. Even some dissent occurs in Orthodox Holy Tradition. For example, the hagiography of St. Eutychius paints a more complicated portrait of the Emperor:
- "After the death of the holy Patriarch Menas, the Apostle Peter appeared in a vision to the emperor Justinian and, pointing his hand at Eutychius, said, 'Let him be made your bishop.' At the very beginning of his patriarchal service, St Eutychius [not Justinian himself] convened the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553), at which the Fathers condemned the heresies cropping up and anathematized them. However, after several years a new heresy arose in the Church: Aphthartodocetism [asartodoketai] or "imperishability" which taught that the flesh of Christ...[was] not capable of suffering. St Eutychius vigorously denounced this heresy, but the emperor Justinian himself inclined toward it, and turned his wrath upon the saint. By order of the emperor, soldiers seized the saint in the church, removed his patriarchal vestments, and sent him into exile to an Amasean monastery (565)."
However, Father Asterios Gerostergios in his book Justinian the Great: The Emperor and Saint, refutes the assertion that Justinian succumbed in his last years to the heresy of aphthartodocetism. It is commonly accepted that, after a lengthy reign in which Justinian spared no effort to try to bring the Monophysites back into the fold of the Orthodox Church, people were weary of the aged emperor. Thus, it is commonly asserted that Justinian adhered to the aphthartodocetist heresy, which was essentially an extreme form of Monophysitism, and deposed Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople for his supposed refusal to conform to this teaching.
Justinian's supposed decree imposing aphthartodocetism was not preserved, and the only contemporary source that refers to it is the testimony of the historian Evagrius. Most historians have accepted the information of Evagrius as true, reasoning that Justinian had either converted to the heresy at the end of his life or had succumbed to senility. These scholars thus relate the decree to the depositions of both Eutychius and Anastasius, patriarch of Antioch. Father Gerostergios states:
- That they were deposed because of their refusal to accept the edict we do not believe to be true because of the following reasons:
- 1. The bishop of Northern Africa, Victor, an enemy of the Emperor, mentions the deposition of Eutychius in his Chronicle, but does not give any reasons for the deposition. If he really knew anything about a new edict, and if, further, he knew of Justinian's acceptance of the aphthartodocetistic heresy, not only would he certainly have mentioned it, but he would also have emphasized the event, in order to defame Justinian's exiling and imprisoning him.
- 2. If Eutychius had been deposed for this reason, his successor, John the Scholastic, would have had to accept such a decree. We have absolutely no information concerning his acceptance of the edict, nor any testimony that he accepted aphthartodocetism. On the contrary, Pope [Saint] Gregory the Great, who was then the papal representative in Constantinople, praises the new patriarch, John, for his holiness and Orthodoxy.
- 3. The same Pope Gregory praises Justinian for his Orthodoxy and he makes no mention of the edict. He says that Patriarch Eutychius was an Origenist. For this reason, W. H. Hutton and A. Knecht have stated: this was the cause for Eutychius' deposition.
- 4. When Patriarch Eutychius returned to the throne of Constantinople in 577, he did not mention the reasons for his dethronement.
- 5. Bishop John of Ephesus, contrary to Evagrius, makes no mention of what transpired in Antioch concerning the deposition of Anastasius. …
- For all the above reasons, we can only conclude that Justinian never issued or planned to issue an edict imposing aphthartodocetism. Such an act would have been in antithesis to his whole previous theological work, and it is clear that it would not have helped the overall purpose of unification. Moreover, such a complete change at such an advanced age, we believe to be a totally unnatural thing. With regard to the deposition of the two mentioned Patriarchs, we believe that it was not related to such an edict, because there is no basis for such a conclusion from the contemporary sources. We are of the opinion that their deposition was due to other reasons, probably to their failure to obey the old Emperor. 
|Împărat al Imperiului Roman de Răsărit (Bizantin)
Iustin al II-lea
Surse şi legături externe
- Justinian I at Wikipedia
- St Justinian the Emperor (OCA)
- The Three-Chapter Controversy at Wikipedia
- University of Kansas Medieval History: Reign of Justinian, 527-565
- Orthodox America: Justinian the Great, Emperor and Saint (ROCOR)
- Roman Emperors: Justinian (A very detailed history.)
- Medieval Sourcebook: Excerpts from Procopius' Secret History of Justinian and his Court (Here Procopius slanders both Justinian and Theodora with vicious abandon.)
- Come and See Icons: Justinian
- earlychurch.org: Justinian I (Very pro-Justinian and the Church.)