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|Botezul – Mirungerea |
Sf. Împărtășanie – Spovedania
Căsătoria – Preoția
|Păcatul – Patima – Virtutea|
Raiul – Iadul
| Păcate strigătoare la cer |
| Păcate capitale |
| Alte păcate |
| Păcatele limbii |
| Virtuțile teologice |
| Virtuțile morale |
|Etapele vieții duhovnicești|
|Despătimirea (Curățirea) |
|Trezvia – Pocăința |
Isihia – Discernământul
|Fecioria – Ascultarea |
Statornicia – Postul
Sărăcia – Monahismul
|Închinarea – Cinstirea |
Pravila de rugăciune
Rugăciunea lui Iisus
Sf. Moaște – Semnul Sf. Cruci
|Părinții apostolici |
Scara dumnezeiescului urcuș
|Editați această casetă|
Botezul creştin este taina începerii unui nou fel de viaţă prin moartea celei vechi şi naşterea din nou la o viaţă în Hristos. În Biserica Ortodoxă, botezul este pentru "spălarea de păcate" (conform cu Crezul de la Niceea) şi intrarea în biserică.
- 1 Învăţături ortodoxe despre botez
- 2 Scufundarea în apă
- 3 Botezul ca taină
- 4 Jewish Background
- 5 Baptism in the Gospels
- 6 Church Fathers on Baptism
- 7 Protestants on Baptism
- 8 External links
Învăţături ortodoxe despre botez
"Şi mărturisim un botez spre iertarea păcatelor."
Aceste cuvinte, din Crezul Niceo-Constantinopolitan, simplu şi totuşi clar afirmă învăţătura ortodoxă despre botez. Evenimentul botezului este adesea considerat evenimentul creştin de bază.
Scufundarea în apă
Cuvântul a boteza vine din baptizo, forma transcrisă din greacă a cuvântului βάπτειν sau baptivzw. Într-un context istoric, acesta înseamnă " a scufunda, a plonja, a imersa" ceva în întregime, de exemplu în apă. Cu toate că de obicei este asociat cu botezul creştin, acest cuvânt este cunosc ca având şi alte contexte. De exemplu, un autor din secolul al II-lea numit Nicander a scris o reţetă de murături care ilustrează folosirea uzuală a acestui cuvânt. El spune prima dată trebuie scufundate (bapto) în apă fierbinte, apoi scufundate complet (baptizo) într-o soluţie de oţet. De asemenea, cuvântul este folosit pentru a prezenta procesul de scufundare a hainelor într-o soluţie de vopsire. Ritualul creştin de botezare în apă merge înapoi în timp până la Sfântul Ioan Înaintemergătorul, despre care Sfânta Scriptură spune că îi boteza pe mulţi, inclusiv pe Iisus. Anumite forme de botez erau practicate şi în Vechiul Testament. Adiţional, botezul era practicat şi în cadrul unor religii păgâne ca simbol al morţii şi renaşterii.
Botezul ca taină
În contrast cu punctele de vedere protestante obişnuite, botezul este mai mult decât un act simbolic de îngropare şi înviere (vezi http://bible.gospelcom.net/passage/?search=Romans%206:3-5;&version=9; Romans 6:3-5]; Colossians 2:12, 3:1-4).
Botezul prin scufundarea de trei ori a unei persoane în numele Sfintei Treimi. Adică, o persoană este scufundată "în numele Tatălui, al Fiului şi al Sfântului Duh", câte una pentru fiecare persoană a Sfintei Treimi. Botezarea prin stropire în loc de scufundare nu este învăţată sau practicată de bBiserica ortodoxă aşa cum este ea practicată în unele biserici Romano Catolice sau protestante. Botezul este imediat urmat de Mirungere şi de Împărtăşire la următoarea Sfântă Liturghie, indiferent de vârstă.
The Orthodox also practice infant baptism on the basis of various texts (e.g. Matthew 19:14) which are interpreted to condone full Church membership for children. This is generally based on a confession of faith for a child by his or her godparents. The Orthodox Church does not practice infant baptism in order to cleanse the taint of original sin, because this doctrine is not taught in the Orthodox Church.
Validity of a baptism
Because the Sacrament of Baptism has actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain criteria must be complied with for it to be valid (i.e., to actually have those effects). Baptism in water is assumed. Violation of some rules regarding baptism render the baptism illicit (i.e., a violation of the church's laws, and a sin for those who willingly and knowingly participate in it), and yet still valid. For example, if a priest introduces some unauthorized variation in the ceremony, the baptism is still valid so long as certain key criteria are still met, even though the priest has violated the church's law and thus sinned, and so have the other participants if they know the priest's behaviour is illict.
In normal circumstances, a licit baptism must be performed by a priest or a deacon. However, in cases of a genuine emergency, anyone may perform the baptism.
One of the criteria for validity is that the correct form of words be used. Orthodox use the form "Let this servant of Christ be baptized..." or "This person is baptized by my hands..." Catholics use the form "I baptize you..." However, both churches recognize the other's form as valid. The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential.
It is also considered essential that the Trinitarian formula is used. Baptisms from non-Trinitarian churches, such as Oneness Pentecostal, are generally not considered valid. There was an ancient controversy over baptism using the formula that Oneness Pentecostals use, with some ancient authorities holding it to be valid. However, this was motivated by the apparent use of that formula at some places in scripture, not by anti-Trinitarian considerations (which might well invalidate the baptism even if that formula is valid). The most significant part, some theologians have argued, is not so much the Trinitarian wording, as the Trinitarian intention, and the recognition that the baptism involves all three Persons.
Some theologians have also argued that sprinkling on a part of the body other than the head in an emergency would also be valid.
A person, once baptized, cannot be baptized again. There was an ancient practice in some areas of rebaptizing those who had returned to the church from heresy, but that practice has been universally rejected.
Baptism by non-Orthodox
The various jurisdictions of the Orthodox Church generally accept baptism performed by other denominations as valid, subject to certain conditions. It is only possible to be baptized once, thus people with valid baptisms from other denominations may not be baptized again on conversion. Instead, for these converts the sacrament of chrismation is performed. However, in some cases it can be difficult to decide whether the original baptism was valid, so if there is any doubt, a conditional baptism is employed, in which the officiant says something of the form of "if you are not yet baptized, I baptize you..." The need for conditional baptisms is motivated not only by factual uncertainties regarding the original baptism, but also by the uncertainty of some of the baptismal theology regarding the precise conditions for the validity of baptism. (The Church holds that one cannot be certain that opinions which are offered by pious theologians, but on which the Church has not made an authoritative pronouncement, are correct, and even authoritative pronouncements can have multiple interpretations which the Church has neither definitively endorsed or rejected.)
The ritual of baptism is prefigured in the purification rites of Jewish law and tradition. In the Tanakh and tradition of the teachers of the Torah, a ritual bath for purification from uncleanness used to be required under specified circumstances in order to be restored to a condition of ritual purity. For example, women after menses, and after a number of blood-free days following child-birth, were washed in a ritual bath, called a mikvah. Those who became ritually defiled by contact with something infectious, would also use the mikveh as part of their healing. Washing was also required for converts. Through practices such as these, immersion in the mikveh came to represent purification and restoration, and qualification for full religious participation in the life of the community (Book of Numbers Chapter 19). Traditional conversion to Judaism also requires a mikvah, so for converts Jewish initiation is in some ways similar to Christian initiation, although the term baptism is not used to describe the Jewish conversion.
Baptism in the Gospels
St. John the Forerunner
A preliminary understanding of baptism starts with St. John the Forerunner, the cousin of Jesus. John spoke of a baptism of repentance in preparation for the coming of the Messiah.
- "And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; And all flesh shall see the salvation of God." (Luke 3:3-6 KJV, also see Matthew 3:1-6, Mark 1:1-5)
In regards to his relationship to the coming Messiah, John also spoke of another kind of baptism.
- "John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable." (Luke 3:16-17 KJV, also see Matthew 3:7-12, Mark 1:6-8)
Baptism of Christ
During John's earthly ministry Jesus came to receive baptism from John:
- "And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God." (John 1:32-34 KJV, also see Matthew 3:13-17, Mark 1:9-11)
The Great Commission
After His resurrection, Jesus appeared to the disciples and spoke to them saying,
- "...All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." (Matthew 28:18-20 KJV, also see Mark 16:14-20, Acts 2:38)
The commandment of the Lord to baptize "in the name of Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" was the practice of the early Church and is still the Orthodox method for baptizing today. (see Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48; 19:5).
Church Fathers on Baptism
"...Concerning the water, indeed, it is written, in reference to the Israelites, that they should not receive that baptism which leads to the remission of sins, but should procure another for themselves..." (The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 11, Roberts-Donaldson)
"Blessed are they who, placing their trust in the cross, have gone down into the water...we indeed descend into the water full of sins and defilement, but come up, bearing fruit in our heart, having the fear [of God] and trust in Jesus in our spirit." (The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 11, Roberts-Donaldson)
"He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water." (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians, Chapter 18, Roberts-Donaldson)
Protestants on Baptism
Many protestants through the ages have de-emphasized the role of baptism in the Christian faith. In reality, a number of the people involved in the Protestant Reformation came out of the Roman Catholic Church with a reverence for the holy mysteries and apostolic tradition.
Martin Luther placed a great importance on baptism. Luther states in The Large Catechism of 1529 AD,
"To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to 'be saved.' To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever."
- Bible search on baptize
- The Service of Holy Baptism (Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America)
- Baptism The Orthodox Faith by Fr. Thomas Hopko
- The Baptism of Christ - Uncovering Bethany beyond the Jordan - 47 min Documentary; includes interviews with various Eastern Orthodox representatives, incl. Greek Orthodox Bishop Vindictus of Jordan