Ambrozie al Milanului
| Acest articol (sau părți din el) este propus spre traducere din limba engleză!
Dacă doriți să vă asumați acestă traducere (parțial sau integral), anunțați acest lucru pe pagina de discuții a articolului.
Our father among the saints Ambrose of Milan came to be bishop of Milan as the only competent candidate to succeed Auxentius, a bishop of Arian persuasion, in 374. A catechumen and trained as a lawyer, he learned his theology through intense study of subject as he was successively baptized and then consecrated as Bishop of Milan. He held to the Nicene belief and through the eloquence of his arguments he persuaded Emperor Gratian to the Nicene confession. Later, he persuaded Gratian to convene a local council, in 381, at Aquileia that deposed the Arian bishops Palladius and Secundianus from their episcopal offices and thus strengthened the Orthodox position in the West. Ambrose zealously combatted imperial court attempts at favoritism to the parties of Arians, the "old" religion, and the Jews, particularly opposing the favors from Emperor Valentinian who supported the Arians. In defending the Orthodox position he has often been compared to St. Hilary of Poitiers. He was known for his sermons which greatly influenced the conversion of Augustine of Hippo. His feast day is celebrated on December 7.
Ambrose was born a citizen of Rome in Trier, Germany, between 337 and 340. His family were Christians. His father was prefect of Gallia Narbonensis, his mother a woman of intellect. He was educated in Rome a for a career following that of his father. As his education in literature, law, and rhetoric progressed he was placed by praetor Anicius Probus on the council of Ligura and Emilia and then made consular prefect with headquarters in Milan. In this position he established himself as an excellent administrator.
In the contention between the Nicene and Arian parties for the succession to the vacant see of Milan after the death of the Arian Auxentius in 374, an address that Ambrose delivered in the midst of the crisis led to his acclamation as the only competent candidate for the position of bishop of Milan. While he was only a catechumen, he was quickly baptized and then within days installed as the new bishop of Milan. He quickly began studying theological under Simplician, a presbyter of Rome. After settling his personal life, dividing his money among the poor and arranging for the care of his family, and he, then, devoted himself to the work of the church.
Soon, the new bishop of Milan began to follow the cause of the Nicenes within the church in arguments with the Arians. In the imperial court Ambrose enjoyed the support of Gratian who was the son of Valentinian I, but Ambrose's arguments could not bring the younger son Valentinian from the Arian side. As the religious arguments progressed, the leaders of the Arians, Palladius and Secundianus, proposed to Gratian to call a general council. Sensing that this was a reasonable request, Gratian agreed, but Ambrose foreseeing adverse consequences, convinced the Emperor to limit the council to a meeting only of the Western bishops.
This synod was convened at Aquileia in 381 with 32 bishops present. With Ambrose presiding, the council called upon Palladius to defend his opinions. Citing that the meeting was not representative of the church and was biased, Palladius refused. The synod then voted to depose both Palladius and Secundianus from their episcopal offices. But, the fight against the Arians intensified when, in 384, Valentinian, his mother Justina, and many among the clergy and the laity who professed the Arian faith requested of Ambrose, as bishop, the use of two churches in Milan and its suburbs. Ambrose refused and when called before the council to answer for his behavior, he was accompanied by a crowd of people whose zeal so over overawed Valentinian's ministers that Ambrose was allowed to leave the meeting without having to surrender the churches. The prefect of the city followed up with further persuasive requests for use of a church in the suburbs. Since Ambrose was still being obstinate, the officers of the household began to take action to prepare the churches for the emperor, but backed off upon seeing the strength of Ambrose's firm stand, particularly when he stated, "If you demand my person, I am ready to submit: carry me to prison or to death. I will not resist, but I will never betray the church of Christ. I will not call upon the people to succour me. I will die at the foot of the altar rather than desert it. The tumult of people I will not encourage, but God alone can appease it." However, circumstances never actually tried Ambrose's courage to this degree.
When members of the "old state religion" tried to obtain approval from Emperor Valentinian II to restore the Altar of Victory to its old station in the Roman Senate, to properly support seven Vestal Virgins, and to make regular observances of other pagan rites, Ambrose vigorously presented counter-arguments to the absurdity and hypocrisy of their requests, noting that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan rites.
Equally, Ambrose held firm with the Emperor against any show of favoritism for the Jews, pointing out to the Emperor, when he was favoring rebuilding a synagogue that a mob had destroyed, the many houses of wealthy people and churches that had been destroyed by unruly mobs, with many then still not restored. Yet, Ambrose did not oppose punishing those who were directly responsible for destroying the synagogue.
While much of his support from the people came from his popularity and reverence paid to him, he also built upon these associations with the poor and with introduction of popular reforms in the order and manner of public worship. He also preached on the public characters of his time, in which the applause of the people was often mingled with derision of the imperial court. While the court was often displeased with his religious positions and his conduct, they respected his political talents and when the need arose, they solicited his aid which he generously granted. Thus, when Magnus Maximus usurped power in Gaul and was considering entering Italy, Valentinian asked Ambrose to go to Gaul and dissuade him from doing so. Ambrose's journey was successful. In a second try for mediation, Ambrose was not as successful as his advice was not followed, allowing Maximus to enter Italy and take Milan. While Justina and her son fled, Ambrose remained in Milan and attended to many of those who suffered from the invasion.
In the power struggles of the late fourth century, Theodosius I, emperor of the East, came to be in undisputed possession of the Roman empire. Yet, Ambrose chastised Theodosius for a massacre in Thessalonica, bidding him to emulate David in repentance. Also, he encouraged Theodosius in the enactment of the "Theodosian decrees" which were more characteristic of Ambrose agenda that that of Theodosius. After the defeat of Eugenius he asked for pardon of those who supported Eugenius. Ambrose passed away on April 4, 397, two years after the death of Theodosius. Ambrose's successor as bishop of Milan was Simplician.
Ambrose is ranked with the great Western Christian leaders of the time: Augustine, St. Jerome, St. Gregory the Great, and St. Hilary of Poitiers. Ambrose was most known for his administrative talents, given his education and early experience before becoming a bishop. Yet, like Hilary he was an Alexandrian and was in the forefront in the doctrinal issues of the day, particularly those concerning Arianism. His sermons were famous and were influential in the conversion of Augustine. His endeavors in hymn writing became models of hymns of dignified simplicity for future times. Ambrose is credited with introducing antiphonal chanting wherein one choir alternates with another. Of particular note is that Ambrose baptized Augustine, his celebrated convert.
In matters of exegesis he is, like Hilary, an Alexandrian. In dogma he follows Basil of Caesarea and other Greek authors, but nevertheless gives a distinctly Western cast to the speculations of which he treats. This is particularly manifest in the weightier emphasis which he lays upon human sin and divine grace, and in the place which he assigns to faith in the individual Christian life.
- De fide ad Gratianum Augustum (On Faith, to Gratian Augustus)
- De officiis (On the Offices of Ministers, an important ecclesiastical handbook)
- De Spiritu Sancto (On the Holy Ghost)
- De incarnationis Dominicae sacramento (On the Sacrament of the Incarnation of the Lord)
- De mysteriis (On the Mysteries)
- Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam (Commentary on the Gospel according to Luke)
- Ethical works: De bono mortis (Death as a Good); De fuga saeculi (Flight From the World); De institutione virginis et sanctae Mariae virginitate perpetua ad Eusebium (On the Birth of the Virgin and the Perpetual Virginity of Mary); De Nabuthae (On Naboth); De paenitentia (On Repentance); De paradiso (On Paradise); De sacramentis (On the Sacraments); De viduis (On Widows); De virginibus (On Virgins); De virginitate (On Virginity); Exhortatio virginitatis (Exhortation to Virginity); De sacramento regenerationis sive de philosophia (On the Sacrament of Rebirth, or, On Philosophy [fragments])
- Homiletic commentaries on the Old Testament: the Hexaemeron (Six Days of Creation); De Helia et ieiunio (On Elijah and Fasting); De Iacob et vita beata (On Jacob and the Happy Life); De Abraham; De Cain et Abel; De Ioseph (Joseph); De Isaac vel anima (On Isaac, or The Soul); De Noe (Noah); De interpellatione Iob et David (On the Prayer of Job and David); De patriarchis (On the Patriarchs); De Tobia (Tobit); Explanatio psalmorum (Explanation of the Psalms); Explanatio symboli (Commentary on the Symbol).
- De obitu Theodosii; De obitu Valentiniani; De excessu fratris Satyri (funeral orations)
- 91 letters
- A collection of hymns
- Fragments of sermons
- Ambrosiaster or the "pseudo-Ambrose" is a brief commentary on Paul's Epistles, which was long attributed to Ambrose.
Sinaxar 7 decembrie
Cuviosul Părintele nostru Ambrozie era de loc din cetatea Romei. Era senator: bărbat destoinic la cuvânt, cântar şi cumpănă a dreptăţii. Nu dădea hotărârile după faţa oamenilor, ci cu nepărtinire şi cu dreptate. De aceea i s-a încredinţat stăpânirea întregii Italii, de către binecredincioşii împăraţi Constantin şi Constant, fiii marelui împărat Constantin. Nu era încă luminat cu dumnezeiescul Botez; era încă printre catehumeni, dar întru nimic nu era mai prejos în virtute şi în viaţă curată decât cei ce se împărtăşeau cu Sfintele Taine. Prin hotărârea împăratului Valentinian, Sfântul Ambrozie a fost ales episcop al Bisericii Milanului, la moartea episcopului acelei Biserici. Mai întâi a fost botezat, apoi a urcat toate treptele bisericeşti până a ajuns la cea mai de sus.
Ca episcop a învăţat pe popor drept şi bine dreapta credinţă; a păzit neatinsă Biserica de orice erezie; a stat alături de cei ce duceau război ereziilor lui Arie, Sabelie şi Eunomie; a scris multe şi felurite cărţi pentru dreapta credinţă; pe împăratul Teodosie, care venise în Milan, după ce săvârşise acea nelegiuita vărsare de sânge în Tesalonic, l-a oprit să intre în biserică; l-a făcut să-şi dea seama de nelegiuirea lui, l-a arătat cât de mare deosebire este între un preot şi un mirean, chiar împărat de-ar fi el, şi l-a sfătuit să nu mai îndrăznească să se apropie de cele dumnezeieşti cu atâta sfruntare şi obrăznicie. După ce a săvârşit fapte îmbunătăţite şi-a sfârşit viaţa, după o bună bătrâneţe.