Șenuda al III-lea (Gayyid) al Alexandriei: Diferență între versiuni
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'''III(Gayyid)''' [[Alexandria ()|]] (1971-2012). [[17 ]] 2012.
[[3 ]] 1923 Assiut ; Nazir Gayed. 1947 Cairo. Gayed , Shoubra Mahmasha. Cairo . 1949, . 1953.
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[[18 ]] 1954, Gayed [http://www.st-mary-mons.org/ "El-Suryan"] El-Suryaani. , 1956 1962, a , , , . papal 1956, [Cyril_VI_VI] .
1962, () ; [[30 ]] 1962. , "El-Keraza" 1965, . 1966 VI.<sup>[http://www.coptichistory.org/new_page_1494.htm], [http://www.zeitun-eg.net/members_contrib/DrGeorgeHBebawi16Nov06.doc]</sup> '' , , , a VI. "conflict" VIAnba .
[[14 ]] 1971, III, . III() Alexandria (15/), ([]) .<sup>[http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?t=0&userID=981&aid=80855], [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/35806], [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/35814], [http://www.zeitun-eg.net/members_contrib/FrBishoyKamelBayan.zip], [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/35816] 30 [http://web.archive.org/web/20031007020943/http://home.ptd.net/~yanney/The_Transfigured_Cross.pdf]</sup> , , e.g., [[Theophilus_III_%28Giannopoulos%29_of_Jerusalem|]], [[Bartholomew_I_%28Archontonis%29_of_Constantinople|]].
III[[3 ]] 1923 Assiut Nazeer Gayed. . , Nazeer . in Shoubra, Cairo, .
1943, Nazeer Cairo a . (Souryan). , Habib Guirguis Nazeer .
Cairo 1947, Nazeer a . , . 1950Nazeer a . 1953, a Monastic Helwan.
Nazeer a Shoubra. .
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- 1 O scurtă biografie al Sfinției Sale Papa Șenuda al III-lea
- 2 Perioada de început
- 3 Monastic Life
- 4 Enthronement as Pope of Alexandria
- 5 Pastoral Activities
- 6 The Exile and Efforts of National Unity
- 7 Ecumenical Relations
- 8 The Coptic Church All Over the World
- 9 The Papal Visits
- 10 Theological disputes and the 2007 Coptic Church crisis
- 11 Main sources
- 12 Books by HH Pope Shenouda III (in English)
O scurtă biografie al Sfinției Sale Papa Șenuda al III-lea
Sfinția Sa s-a născut în 3 august 1923 în orașul Assiut din Egiptul de Sus; a primit numele de Nazir Gayed. Și-a luat licența în istorie în 1947 la Universitatea din Cairo. Gayed era foarte activ în parohie și servea ca profesor la Școala Duminicală, întâi la Biserica Sf. Anton din Shoubra și apoi la Biserica Sfânta Maria din Mahmasha. Lucra ca profesor de liceu de engleză și studii sociale în Cairo ziua iar noaptea participa la cursurile Seminarului de Teologie Coptă. După absolvirea seminarului în 1949, a fost ales să predea Studii nou-testamentare. A fost numit profesor la Școala Monahală în 1953.
Încă din tinerețe, Sfinția Sa a îndrăgit foarte mult scrisul, în special poezii; el era un literat remarcabil așa cum depun mărturie cele peste o sută de cărți scrise de el. Timp de mulți ani, a fost redactor șef la Revista Școlii Duminicale. În același timp, el urma cursurile școlii post-liceale al Seminarul de Arheologie.
În 18 iulie 1954, Gayed a intrat în monahism la Mănăstirea "El-Suryan" din deșertul vestic al Egiptului cu numele de Părintele Antonie El-Suryaani. Timp de șase ani, din 1956 până în 1962, a dus o viață solitară într-o peșteră la circa șapte kilometri distanță de mănăstire, dedicându-și, în întregime, timpul meditației, rugăciunii și ascetismului. A fost unul dintre cei nominalizați la tronul papal în 1956, dar Papa Chiril al VI-lea a fost cel ales, în cele din urmă.
În 1962, el a fost hirotonit Episcop al Educației (Religioase) Ecleziastice de către Papa Chiril al VI-lea și a fost numit Președinte al Seminarului Teologic Copt; a fost numit Episcop Șenuda în 30 septembrie 1962. Continuîndu-și activitatea literară din trecut, Episcopul Șenuda a publicat primul număr al revistei "El-Keraza" în limba arabă în 1965, rămânând editor șef până în zilele noastre. În 1966 Episcopul Șenuda a fost suspendat de către Papa Chiril al VI-lea.,  Această suspendare a fost, în principal, consecința 'campaniei pentru schimbare' a Episcopului Șenuda și a studenților, campanie entuziastă în care s-au folosit expresii puternice, cum ar fi dreptul oamenilor de ași alege episcopii și preoții, un principiu pe care el l-a aplicat după ce a i-a urmat Papei Chiril al VI-lea după ce acesta a răposat. Se pare că acest "conflict" dintre Papa Chiril al VI-lea și Anba Șenuda a fost rezolvat, în cele din urmă.
În 14 noiembrie 1971, Sfinția Sa a fost întronizat ca Papa Șenuda al III-lea, cel de-al 117-lea Papă al Alexandriei și succesor al scaunului Sfântului Marcu. Sunt voci care argumentează că alegerea Papei Șenuda al III-lea ca Papă (și Episcop) al orașului Alexandria nu este canonică (este împotriva Canonului al 15-lea de la Niceea și a altor sinoade/canoane ale Bisericii), deoarece Sfinția Sa era deja episcop (fiind deja hirotonit) ca episcop în anii 1960., , , ,  și de la pagina 30  Cu toate acestea, există exemple din zilele noastre din alte Biserici care erau episcopi anteriori alegerii lor ca patriarhi, e.g., , .
Perioada de început
Sfinția Sa Papa Șenuda al III-lea s-a născut în 3 august 1923 ca ultimul dintre cei opt frați (cinci fete și trei băieți) în provincia Assiut din Egiptul de Sus și a primit numele de Nazeer Gayed. Mama sa a murit curând după nașterea sa. La vârsta de 16 ani, Nazeer a început să lucreze la Școala de Duminică a Bisericii Sf. Antonie d in Shoubra, Cairo, unde a și absolvit școala.
În 1943, Nazeer a intrat la Universitatea din Cairo unde a terminat ca Licențiat în Artă Engleză și Istorie. În această perioadă și-a petrecut vacanțele de vară la Mănăstirea Sfânta Maria (Souryan). Deși la vremea aceea, doar studenți absolvenți erau admiși la Seminarul Teologic Copt, Decanul Arhidiacon Habib Guirguis l-a acceptat pe Nazeer deși acesta încă era elev în ultimul an de liceu.
După absolvirea Universitații din Cairo în 1947, Nazeer și-a efectuat stagiul militar obligatoriu și a început să lucreze ca profesor de istorie și engleză. Între timp, el și-a finalizat Licența în Teologie, iar decanul l-anumit lector în Vechiul și Noul Testament. În 1950, Nazeer a demisionat din slujbele sale seculare pentru a prelua o poție completă de lector. În 1953, a fost numit lector la Colegiul Monastic din Helwan.
Nazeer înpreună cu alți slujitori au lucrat câțiva ani pentru a întări Școala de Duminică și ungrup de studiu pentru tineri la Biserica Sfântul Antonie din Shoubra. Slujirea sa a avut ca efect instruirea a sute de slujitori devotați care au înființat grupuri pentru tineri și în parohiile învecinate.
Monastic LifeHis Holiness Pope Kyrillos VI appointed Fr. Antonyos as his personal secretary.
On September 30, 1962, Pope Kyrillos VI ordained Fr. Antonyos as Bishop Shenouda, the first bishop for Christian Education. He became the President and Dean of the Theological Seminary, and by late 1969 the enrollment of full-time students doubled and the enrollment of part-time students increased 10 times its original number. Under his presidency, women were admitted to the College and several were appointed lecturers. His Grace's efforts were recognized in 1969 when he was elected President of the Association of Middle East Theological Colleges.
Enthronement as Pope of Alexandria
On March 9, 1971, His Holiness Pope Kyrillos (Cyril) VI departed in peace. The Holy Synod met on March 22 to plan for the election of the new Patriarch. Among the final three candidates was Bishop Shenouda. On October 31, 1971, the altar ballot was conducted during the divine Liturgy on the Feast of Saint Reweis. At the end of the Liturgy, His Eminence Metropolitan Antonyos, laid his hands on a young boy who was then blindfolded and told to choose one of the three pieces of paper from the box. The ballot box had been taken from the altar and placed on an elevated table. As the congregation prayed the Lord's Prayer and the words "Lord Have Mercy," the boy chose one of the pieces of paper and gave it to Metropolitan Antonyos, who then joyfully declared God's chosen shepherd for His church as His Grace Bishop Shenouda, Bishop of Education.
On November 14, 1971, in Saint Mark's Cathedral in Cairo, His Holiness Pope Shenouda III was enthroned as 117th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of Saint Mark. His Holiness became the first patriarch of Alexandria since the fifth century to have been Dean of the Theological Seminary. He continues to lecture at the branches of the Seminary in Cairo, Alexandria, and abroad and at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. To meet the expanding ministry of Christian education, His Holiness established other branches of the seminary in Egypt, as well as three graduate institues: Biblical Studies, Hymnology, and Coptic Language. On November 29, 1993, he officially opened the Institute of Pastoral Care. For his erudition in theology and scripture, His Holiness has been awarded four honorary Doctoral Degrees in Theology, three from American Universities and one from a German University.
His Holiness' edifying and spiritually uplifting sermons have won international acclaim; in 1978 the Browning Institute awarded him the prize for the best Christian preacher in the world. His Holiness is also the author of more than eighty books on a variety of subjects, and over the past 20 years, he has been the Editor-in-Chief of the Church's official magazine, EL-KERAZA.
His Holiness ordained more than seventy bishops, established general bishoprics, including the first Bishopric of Youth, more than four hundred priests, and countless deacons for Cairo, Alexandra and the Churches abroad. This extended the pastoral care to every city, village and family all over the See of St. Mark. His Holiness continually holds meetings and seminars with the clergy to discuss any pastoral problems or needs.
His Holiness also gives special attention to the service of women in the Coptic Orthodox Church. "We felt a great need of the work of women and we wanted women to have a certain order and service in the Church, not only to have girls as Sunday School teachers who give a part of their time whenever they can, but we want girls and women to give their whole life to God and serve the church." His Holiness says.
Despite his many responsibilities, His Holiness usually manages to spend three days a week in the monastery. His love of monasticism has led to a monastic revival in the Coptic Church. He has ordained hundreds of monks and nuns and renovated and reestablished many monasteries and convents. He is the first Pope to establish Coptic monasteries outside of Egypt, which presently number eight.
As a Bishop for Christian Education, His Grace has overseen the education of Sunday School Curriculum, and during his papacy, has continued to hold meetings for Sunday School teachers to establish a Sunday School curriculum for the churches abroad.
The Exile and Efforts of National Unity
During the early years of his enthronement, His Holiness Pope Shenouda had an amicable relationship with the late Egyptian President Anwar El-Sadat. However, during his presidency, violent Islamic fundamentalist groups increased all over Egypt, especially in the Universities. They started to attack the Copts, vandalize their businesses, and burn their churches, which led Pope Shenouda to protest to the government against this repeated violence. In spring 1981, Pope Shenouda refused to hold any public Church celebrations of Easter and didn't receive that year the President's delegates who are regularly sent to greet the Church and Coptic Christians on such occasions (this particular move by Pope Shenouda III was very embarrassing to President Sadat, both nationally and internationally). Sadat reacted by issuing a presidential decree to exile His Holiness to the Monastery of St. Bishoy, imprison eight bishops, twenty-four priest, leading Coptic lay figures, and ban “El-Keraza" magazine and “Watany" newspaper.
(Another major difference between Sadat and Pope Shenouda III is the attitude of the latter regarding the normalization of the relations between Egypt and Israel and His Holiness' very prominent Arab nationalist zeal. In fact, there is currently (as of 2006) a papal decree issued by Pope Shenouda III that anathematizes any Copt who dares to visit the Christian holy places in Jerusalem and Israel. According to that decree, such Copts are automatically banned from receiving Holy Communion in the Coptic Orthodox Church, with no route or mechanism being offered to them for repentance and lifting of this ban. Pope Shenouda III has repeatedly declared that Christians must only visit Jerusalem hand in hand with their Muslim brothers after the conflict with Israel is resolved to the satisfaction of all parties. Because of this, many Copts, especially in the diaspora, have accused the pope of mixing religion (ban on receiving Holy Communion if one visits Jerusalem for pilgrimage) with politics (the Arab-Israeli conflict), and consider this papal decree unjustified.)
Despite having to spend forty months away from his flock, His Holiness continued to care for his church. He saw the exile as an opportunity for spiritual retreat and wrote sixteen books during that time.
A month after his decree, Sadat was assassinated by the same fundamentalist groups. After much effort from His Holiness’ children inside and outside the Coptic Orthodox Church, and after three and a half years, the succeeding Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, released Pope Shenouda from exile. Accompanied by many bishops, His Holiness returned to St. Mark’s Cathedral in Cairo, where more than ten thousand people filled the Cathedral to receive the Pope.
His Holiness, after praying the Prayer of thanksgiving, greeted the flock with these words: “I have no residence except in your hearts, which are full of love. I have never been away from your hearts, not even for a twinkle of an eye." He went on to say “I would like to do my best to deepen love, peace and reconciliation between the Church and the State, between the Church and our Muslim citizens. We are like organs in the one body, which is Egypt."
His Holiness works tirelessly to improve relations between the Christians and Muslims in Egypt, in order to establish a peaceful social environment and to dispel sectarian divisions. The Pope and the president of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, are in good relations, as well as with the moderate Muslims in Egypt.
Before his enthronement, Bishop Shenouda attended the first unofficial ecumenical consultation between theologians of the Oriental Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches, in Vienna in September 1971. The agreed statement included the words: "We believe that our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is God the Son incarnate; perfect in His divinity and perfect in His humanity. His divinity was not separated from His humanity for a single moment, not for the twinkling of an eye. His humanity is one with His divinity without commixture, without confusion, without division, without separation. We in our common faith in the one Lord Jesus Christ regard His mystery inexhaustible and ineffable and for the human mind never fully comprehensible or expressible." (From the Communique of the first nonofficial ecumenical consultation between theologians of the Oriental Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches, in 1971).
In response, His Holiness Pope Shenouda said, "We have to declare that between us there are many points of agreement in the principles of faith. As for points of difference, there is no doubt that after fifteen centuries of study, examination, and controversy, we are at much nearer grounds of agreement than our ancestors of the fifth and sixth centuries. We are all more ready and more intense in our desire to reach solutions for differences and attain simpler expressions of our common faith."
Following this historic encounter, a joint Commission was established to explore the road to full intercommunion between the two Apostolic Churches. See Pope Paul VI and Pope Shenouda III's Common Declarationand other joint meetings/reports.
In June 1989, His Holiness opened the conference of the International Commission for Inter-Orthodox theological Dialogue. A part of the agreed statement said: "When we speak of the one composite (synthetos) hypostasis of our Lord Jesus Christ, we do not say that in Him a divine hypostasis and a human hypostasis came together. It is that the one eternal hypostasis of the Second Person of the Trinity has assumed our created human nature in that act of uniting it with His own uncreated divine nature, to form an inseparably and unconfusedly united real divine-human being, the natures being distinguished from each other contemplation (theoria) only....We agree in condemning the Nestorian and the Eutychian heresies. We neither separate nor divide the human nature in Christ from His divine nature, nor do we think that the former was absorbed in the latter and thus ceased to exist" (First Agreed Statement with the Byzantine Family of Orthodoxy in 1989). See also Dialogue With the Byzantine Family of Orthodoxyand Latest Agreed Statement (With the Ecumenical Patriarchate).
Until now, His Holiness initiates and closely monitors theological dialogue with the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, Swedish Lutheran, and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. His Holiness also served as one of the Presidents of the World Council of Churches and the Middle East Council of Churches.
The Coptic Church All Over the World
As head of the oldest Church in Africa, His Holiness Pope Shenouda III has been very keen to extend the Apostolic mission of St. Mark across all of Africa. There are now 33 Coptic Churches among more than 12 African tribes in nine African countries, including Kenya, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa. Nairobi is also the center of the new Diocese in Kenya.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church (EOTC) has strong historical ties with the Coptic Orthodox Church. The two churches have been linked by very intimate relations since the early centuries of Christianity, as both are children of St. Mark the Apostle. In 1994, upon request of the EOTC, they gained Autocephaly (independence)from the Coptic Church. Both Churches still belong to the See of St. Mark and both confess one Orthodox Doctrine.
Eritrea, upon gaining independence from Ethiopia, received pastoral care from His Holiness Pope Shenouda by his ordination of Eritrean Bishops to form the Holy Synod for the Eritrian Orthodox Church.
The Papal Visits
In the United States, the mayor of Jersey City hoisted the Coptic Church flag side by side with the American flag at City Hall during the Papal visit. The US House of Representatives invited His Holiness to open a congressional session with prayer. His Holiness also met with former US President George Bush and requested that "he give a big push" to peace in the Middle East. In a previous visit, His Holiness met with former US President Jimmy Carter. Afterwards His Holiness and Carter became good friends.
More recently, Pope Shenouda III underwent spinal surgery at Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, on 22 October 2006. Pope Shenouda III has since then fully recovered, and celebrated the 35th anniversary of His Holiness' enthronement as Pope of Alexandria on 14 November 2006 in Egypt, among thousands of faithful who flocked to congratulate His Holiness on this occasion (videos).
Theological disputes and the 2007 Coptic Church crisis
These have recently come to the attention of the mainstream secular newsmedia in Egypt (see, for example, this Egyptian newspaper article in English published on February 23, 2007). More recently a book entitled Orthodoxy: A Creed for Today (1972) by the Very Rev. Fr. Anthony M. Coniaris has been banned by the Holy Synod of the Coptic Church presided by Pope Shenouda III on May 26, 2007, as it discusses the Orthodox concept of theosis, which was considered to be against Pope Shenouda's teachings. Wikipedia has further details about the subject. Some learned observers have attributed Pope Shenouda's decades-long theological disputes with different Coptic theologians (like the late Father Matta El-Meskeen) to personal and ecclesiastico-political motives, rather than to any genuine doctrinal flaws or deviations from Orthodoxy in the writings of these theologians.
See also the 2007 conflict of the Coptic Church with the Catholic and Protestant Churches in Egypt: Bishoy_(Nicola)_of_Damietta#A_.22controversial.22_figure.
- H. H. Pope Shenouda III page at http://St-Takla.org (including sermons, video lectues by Pope Shenouda)
- Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Books by HH Pope Shenouda III (in English)
- Official site where EL-KERAZA Church Magazine is available in English
- The Nature of Christ (PDF)
- Online Books
- Some of the Books of H.H. Pope Shenouda III
- Spiritual Books
Șenuda al III-lea (Gayyid) al Alexandriei