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Efrem Sirul

313 octeți adăugați, 14 noiembrie 2007 11:01
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Our Righteous Father Dreptul Părintele nostru '''Ephrem the SyrianEfrem Sirul''' was a fost un scriitor prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th centuryde imnuri şi teolog din secolul IV. He is venerated by Christians throughout the worldEl este cinstit de creştini din lumea întreagă, but especially among Syriac Christiansdar în mod deosebit de creştinii siriaci, as a ca [[saintsfânt]]. His [[feast dayPrăznuire|Prăznuirea]] in the sa în [[Orthodox ChurchBiserica Ortodoxă]] is este în [[January 28Ianuarie]].
[[Image:Ephrem the Syrian.jpg|right|frame|Sf. Efrem Sirul]]
== Name Nume ==Ephrem is also variously known as Ephraim Efrem mai este cunoscut şi ca Efraim (Hebrew and Greekebraică sau greacă), Ephraem Efrem (Latinlatină), Aphrem and Afraim sau Afrem (both Syriacambele siriace). HoweverTotuşi, "EphremEfrem" is the generally preferred spellingeste scrierea preferată în general.:Syriac Siriacă &mdash; <big> &#1825;&#1834;&#1821; &#1808;&#1830;&#1834;&#1821;&#1825; &#1827;&#1816;&#1834;&#1821;&#1821;&#1808;</big> &mdash; ''Mâr Aphrêm Sûryâyâ''.:Greek Greacă &mdash; &#902;&gamma;&iota;&omicron;&#962; &Epsilon;&phi;&rho;&alpha;&iota;&mu; &Sigma;&upsilon;&rho;&omicron;&#962; &mdash; ''Hagios Ephraim Syros''.:Latin Latină &mdash; Sanctus Ephraem Syrus:English Engleză &mdash; Saint Ephrem the Syrian:Arabic Arabă &mdash; أفرام السرياني &mdash; ''Afram as-Suryani''
== Life Viaţa==Ephrem was born around the year Efrem s-a născut în jurul anului 306, in the city of în oraşul Nisibis (the modern Turkish town of actualul Nusaybin, on the border with Syriala graniţa cu Siria). Internal evidence from Ephrem's hymnody suggests that both his parents were part of the growing Christian community in the cityDovezi cuprinse în imnografia sa sugerează că ambii săi părinţi făceau parte din comunitatea creştină în creştere a oraşului, although later hagiographers wrote that his father was a pagan priestdeşi hagiografii târzii au scris că tatăl său era preot păgân. Numerous languages were spoken in the În Nisibis of Ephrem's day-ul zilelor lui Efrem erau vorbite numeroase limbi, mostly dialects of Aramaicîndeosebi dialecte ale aramaicii. The Christian community used the Syriac dialectComunitatea creştină folosea dialectul siriac. Various pagan religionsNumeroase religii păgâne, [[Judaismiudaism|iudaismul]] and early Christian sects vied with one another for the hearts and minds of the populaceşi grupările creştine timpurii concurau una cu cealaltă pentru inima şi sufletul locuitorilor. It was a time of great religious and political tensionErau vremuri de puternice tensiuni religioase şi politice. The Roman Emperor Împăratul roman [[DiocletianDiocleţian]] had signed a treaty with his Persian counterpartsemanse un tratat cu omologul său persan, Nerses in în 298 that transferred care trecuse Nisibis into Roman handsîn mâinile romanilor. The savage persecution and martyrdom of Christians under Diocletian were an important part of Persecuţiile sălbatice ale lui Diocleţian sunt o parte importantă a moştenirii bisericii Nisibene church heritage as Ephrem grew updin perioada creşterii lui Efrem.
St. Sfântul [[James of din Nisibis|James]] (Mar Jacob), the first primul [[bishopepiscop]] of din Nisibis, was appointed in a fost ales în 308, and Ephrem grew up under his leadership of the community. StIar Efrem a crescut sub îndrumarea sa. Sfântul James is recorded as a signatory at the este cunoscut ca unul din participanţii la [[First Ecumenical CouncilPrimul Sinod Ecumenic|Primul Sinod Ecumenic]] in din 325. Ephrem was Efem a fost [[baptismbotez|baptizedbotezat]] as a youthde tânăr, and James appointed him as a teacher ia fost profesor (Syriac în siriacă ''malp&acirc;n&acirc;'', a title that still carries great un titlu cu o mare încărcătură de respect for Syriac Christianspentru creştinii siriaci). He was ordained as a A fost hirotonit ca [[deacondiacon]] either at this time or lateratunci ori mai târziu. He began to compose hymns and write biblical commentaries as part of his educational officeA început să compună imnuri şi să scrie comentarii biblice ca parte a sarcinilor sale educative. In his hymnsÎn imnurile sale, he sometimes refers to himself as a adeseori se referă la sine însuşi ca la un "herdsmanom care adună laolaltă" , (''`all&acirc;n&acirc;''), to his bishop as the la episcopul său ca "shepherdpăstorul" (''r&acirc;`y&acirc;'') and his community as a iar la comunitatea sa ca "foldţarc" (''dayr&acirc;''). Ephrem is popularly credited as the founder of the School of Popular, Efrem este creditat ca fondatorul Şcolii din Nisibis, which in later centuries was the centre of learning of the care în secolele următoare a a fost centrul învăţăturilor [[Assyrian Church of the EastBiserica Asiriană de Răsărit|Bisericii Asiriene de Răsărit]] (i.e., the [[Nestorianism|NestoriansNestorieni]]).
In În 337, emperor împăratul [[Constantine the GreatConstantin cel Mare|Constantine Constantin I]], who had established Christianity as the state religion of the care a transformat creştinismul în religie de stat în Imperiul Roman Empire, dieda murit. Seizing on this opportunityProfitând de această oportunitate, Shapur al II of Persia began -lea al Persiei a series of attacks into Roman North Mesopotamiainiţiat o serie de atacuri în nordul Mesopotamiei de sub administraţie romană. Nisibis was besieged in a fost asediat în 338, 346 and şi 350. During the first siegeÎn timpul primului asediu, Ephrem credits Bishop Efrem consideră că episcopul James as defending the city with his prayersa apărat oraşul cu rugăciunile sale. Ephrem's beloved bishop died soon after the eventEpiscopul îndrăgit de Efrem a murit curând după acest evenimet, and iar Babu led the church through the turbulent times of border skirmishesa condus destinele bisericii prin vremurile tulburi ale disputelor de frontieră. In the third siegeÎn timpul celui de-al treilea asediu, of din anul 350, Shapur rerouted the River a schimbat cursul râului Mygdonius to undermine the walls of Nisibispentru a ocoli zidurile Nisibisului. The Nisibenes quickly repaired the walls while the Persian elephant cavalry became bogged down in the wet groundNisibisenii au refăcut repede fortificaţiile în timp ce cavaleria pe elefanţi a perşilor s-a împotmolit în pământul mocirlos de pe fundul râului. Ephrem celebrated the miraculous salvation of the city in Efrem a sărbătorit salvarea miraculoasă a hymn as being like Noah's Ark floating to safety on the floodoraşului într-un imn ca fiind ca plutirea sigură Arcei lui Noe pe puhoaiele potopului.
One important physical link to Ephrem's lifetime is the baptistery of Nisibis. The inscription tells that it was constructed under Bishop Vologeses in 359. That was the year that Shapur began to harry the region once again. The cities around Nisibis were destroyed one by one, and their citizens killed or deported. The Roman Empire was preoccupied in the west, and [[Constantius]] and [[Julian the Apostate]] struggled for overall control. Eventually, with Constantius dead, Julian began his march into Mesopotamia. He brought with him his increasingly stringent persecutions on Christians. Julian began a foolhardy march against the Persian capital Ctesiphon, where, overstretched and outnumbered, he began an immediate retreat back along the same road. Julian was killed defending his retreat, and the army elected Jovian as the new emperor. Unlike his predecessor, Jovian was a Nicene Christian. He was forced by circumstances to ask for terms from Shapur, and conceded Nisibis to Persia, with the rule that the city's Christian community would leave. Bishop Abraham, the successor to Vologeses, led his people into exile.
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