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Relaţiile dintre Biserica Ortodoxă şi Romano-Catolicism (cronologie)

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This '''timeline of Orthodox Christian and [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] relations''' chronicles major dates which concern the relationship between the two communions.

==Apostolic and Ante-Nicene Era==
*ca. 37-53 Episcopacy of [[Apostle Peter]] in Antioch.
*64 Martyrdom of Peter in Rome.
*67 Election of [[Linus of Rome|Linus]], first bishop of Rome.
*135 First recorded use of title Pope by a Roman bishop (Hyginus).
*210 [[Hippolytus of Rome]], bishop and martyr and last of the Greek-speaking fathers in Rome, writes ''[[w:Refutation of all Heresies|Refutation of All Heresies]]'' (''Philosophumena''), and ''Apostolic Tradition''.
*255 [[Cyprian of Carthage]] rejects Pope [[Stephen I of Rome|Stephen I]]'s ruling on the [[Donatism|Donatist]] controversy.

==Conciliar Era==
*325 Original [[Nicene Creed]] ratified at [[First Ecumenical Council]].
*330 Founding of Constantinople as New Rome, renaming the city of Byzantium.
*357 Pope [[Liberius of Rome|Liberius]] signs [[Semi-Arianism|Semi-Arian]] creed (possibly under duress).
*379 Emperor Gratian permits Roman pope authority over neighboring bishops.
*381 Nicene Creed expanded at [[Second Ecumenical Council]].
*382 First use of papal title ''[[w:Pontifex Maximus|Pontifex Maximus]]'', as Emperor [[w:Gratian|Gratian]] relinquishes the former pagan imperial religious title and bestows it on Pope [[w:Pope Damasus I|Damasus I]] of Rome.<ref>Alan Cameron. ''Gratian's Repudiation of the Pontifical Robe.'' '''The Journal of Roman Studies'''. Vol.58, Parts 1 and 2. 1968. pp.96-102.</ref><ref group="note">Although it was not until the fifteenth century that ''"Pontifex Maximus"'' became a regular title of honour for Popes.</ref>
*395-405 Series of correspondences between Augustine of Hippo and Jerome, where [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] maintains the validity of the [[Septuagint]], while [[Jerome]] favours the Hebrew (Rabinnical) Bible which becomes the OT basis for the Latin [[Vulgate]].<ref group="note">See: ''Letters of Augustine'' (No. 28, 71, 81) and the ''Letters of Jerome'' (No. 112), in:<br>
''A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Translated into English with Prolegomena and Explanatory Notes under the Editorial Supervision of Henry Wace and Philip Schaff''. Oxford: Parker; New York: Christian Literature Co., 1890-1900.</ref>
*410 Rome sacked by Visigoth invaders.
*417 Pope [[Zosimus of Rome|Zosimus]] waffles on [[Pelagianism]].
*447 Pope [[Leo the Great|Leo I]] wrote to the bishops of Sicily, rebuking them for permitting [[baptism]] at [[Epiphany]], as the Greeks did, and ordering them to observe the Roman custom of baptizing on [[Pascha|Easter]] and [[Pentecost|Whitsunday]].<ref name=SICILY>White, Lynn, Jr.. ''"The Byzantinization of Sicily."'' '''The American Historical Review.''' Vol. 42, No. 1 (Oct., 1936). p.5.</ref>
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] notes that Rome's [[primacy]] is because it was "the imperial city"; ''Tome'' of Pope St. [[Leo of Rome|Leo I]] endorsed by Council after review.
*455 Rome sacked by Vandals.
*476 Fall of the Western Roman Empire as [[w:Romulus Augustulus|Romulus Augustulus]], the last Western Roman emperor, is deposed by the German Odoacer, leaving the emperor in the Greek East as the sole imperial authority, and an unstable political environment in the West where the [[Church of Rome]] slowly developed a centralized structure, concentrating religious as well as secular authority in the office of the [[Pope]], the Bishop of Rome.<ref group="note">After the fall of the Western Empire, the terms "Greek East" and "Latin West" are applied to areas that were formerly part of the Eastern or Western Empires, and also to areas that fell under the Greek or Latin cultural sphere but which had never been part of the Roman Empire. In this sense, particular attention is given to differences in Christianity in the two parts, specifically between Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.</ref>
*ca. 537 Pope [[Vigilius of Rome|Vigilius]] allegedly writes letter endorsing [[Monophysitism]].
*537-752 [[w:Byzantine Papacy|Byzantine Papacy]].
*589 Insertion of ''[[Filioque]]'' into Nicene Creed by local council in Toledo, Spain.
*ca. 590-604 Pope St. [[Gregory the Great]] rejects the title of "universal bishop" for any bishop.
*663-668 The island of Sicily passed to the [[Byzantine Rite|Greek rite]] during the six years when [[Constans II]] made Syracuse his residence and the capital of the [[Byzantine Empire]].<ref name="SICILY"/>
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] [[anathema]]tizes Pope [[Honorius I of Rome|Honorius]] as a [[Monothelitism|Monothelite]] [[heresy|heretic]].<ref group="note">This [[anathema]] was later one of the main arguments against Papal infallibility in the discussions surrounding the First Vatican Council of 1870, but ultimately it was not regarded as being contrary to the proposed dogma.</ref>
*692 The [[Pentarchy]] form of government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the [[Quinisext Council|Council in Trullo]], held in Constantinople, which ranked the five sees as ''Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch'', and ''Jerusalem''.
*710 Last papal visit to Constantinople until 1967.
*ca. 750 Forging of the ''[[w:Donation of Constantine|Donation of Constantine]]'', a false document claiming to be from St. [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] granting universal secular power to the Pope and his successors.
*732-33 Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian transfers the territories of Southern Italy (Sicily and Calabria), Greece, and the Aegean away from the jurisdiction of the Pope to that of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarch]] in response to Pope St. [[Gregory III of Rome]]'s support of a revolt in Italy against [[iconoclasm]], in effect throwing the Papacy out of the Empire.
*752 Founding of Papal States (lasting until 1870).

==Estrangement and Schism==
*792 Charlemagne accuses "Greeks" of deleting ''Filioque'' from original Creed.
*800 Usurpation of Western Roman Empire by Charlemagne.
*809 Pope [[Leo III of Rome|Leo III]] forbids addition of Filioque to Creed and has original Creed in both Greek and Latin inscribed on silver tablets displayed in Rome.
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] deposes St. [[Photius the Great]].
*870 Gradual collapse of the [[w:Great Moravia|Moravian]] mission beginning with the death of Prince [[Rastislav of Moravia|Rostislav of Moravia]], who is captured and deposed by his nephew, [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]], who favours more the Latin liturgy and Bavarian clergy represented by the Frankish Bp. Wiching of Nitra (consecrated in 880 as the first Bp. of Nitria);<ref group="note">In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid|Ochrid]] and [[w:Preslav|Preslav]], two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably [[Church of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]], and [[Church of Russia|Russia]].</ref>
*874 The [[w:Great Moravia|Great Moravian]] king [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]] subjugated the [[w:Vistulans|Vistulan]] tribe of [[w:Lesser Poland|Lesser Poland]], resulting in the Christianization of Little Poland in the Orthodox Cyrillo-Methodian style, (as opposed to the Western Bohemian style), as early as the end of 9th century, before the conversion of Polish King [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]] in 966;<ref group="note">Antoni Mironowicz. ''[ The Orthodox Church in Poland].'' 2010.</ref>
*879-880 [[Eighth Ecumenical Council|Council in Constantinople]] (endorsed by papacy) reinstates St. Photius and anathematizes any changes to Nicene Creed, including the [[Filioque]].<ref group="note">"The Council of 879-880 in Constantinople, under the Ecumenical Patriarch, Archbishop of Constantinople and New Rome, Saint [[Photios the Great]], Equal to the Apostles, which condemned as heretical the teaching of the [[Filioque]], and is considered by the consciousness of the Church to be the '''8th Ecumenical Council''', because in it were representatives of all the Patriarchates, including the then Orthodox Pope of Rome, [[John VIII of Rome|John the 8th]], and because the decisions of this council were universally accepted."
:* <small>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 4.</small></ref>
*962 Founding of Holy Roman Empire.
*966 [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]], the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess [[w:Dobrawa of Bohemia|Dobrawa]] in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.<ref group="note">Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by [[Rastislav of Moravia|St Rostislav]], Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that '''the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century.''' (''Orthodox England. [ Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy].'')</ref>
*996 After the repose of Pope John XV (985-996), the Frankish King Otto III installs his cousin Bruno of Carinthia as Pope Gregory V (996–999), the first German (non-Roman) Pope, marking the point at which the Roman papacy is converted to a Frankish organization.<ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-15.</ref><ref group="note">"At this point, the once Roman papacy converts to a Frankish organization and becomes a simple pawn of the autocracy. Due to the Frankish control of the papacy, the rulings of the [[Eighth Ecumenical Council]] of 879 (of which [[John VIII of Rome|Pope John VIII]] had participated) are uncanonically rejected. This allows the [[filioque]] to be introduced into the [[Church of Rome]], as well as the papal claims of world domination (heretical views condemned by the Eighth Ecumenical Council). The new Frankish papacy also begins to reject the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople (New Rome), an historic title bestowed upon the latter as early as 7th century. A Roman Orthodox party in the West rejects the new Frankish Germanic pope and elects a truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, [[John XVI of Rome|John XVI]]."<br>
:* <small>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-15.</small></ref>
*1009 Patr. [[Sergius II of Constantinople]] removes name of [[Sergius IV of Rome|Pope Sergius IV]] from the [[diptychs]] of Constantinople, because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the [[Filioque]].<ref>Rev. Andrew J. Barakos. ''[ The Great Schism].'' Assumption Greek Orthodox Church, Scottsdale, Arizona. Retrieved: 2013-02-15.</ref><ref group="note">"From 1009, the [[w:Franks|Franks]] controlled the succession to the papal throne and Latin orthodoxy dropped its resistance to the innovations devised at the court of of Charlemagne, making it official doctrine."<br>
:* <small>[[Christos Yannaras]]. ''Orthodoxy and the West: Hellenic Self-Identity in the Modern Age.'' Transl. Peter Chamberas and Norman Russell. Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006. p.18.</small></ref>
*1014 First use of ''Filioque'' by Pope of Rome, at coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.
*1022 At a Council of Pavia, Pope [[w:Pope Benedict VIII|Benedict VIII]] officially reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy (first documented at the Synod of Elvira in Spain, ca. 306 AD), banning marriages and concubines for priests.<ref>Fr. Alphonse De Valk ([[w:Congregation of St. Basil|C.S.B.]]). ''"Priestly celibacy."'' '''Catholic Insight'''. Vol. 5, Number 3, Apr. 1997, pp.20-24.</ref><ref group="note">Clerical celibacy was officially reaffirmed once again by [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] in 1139 at the [[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], and finally at the end of 1563 at the Council of Trent.</ref>
*1054 Excommunication of Ecumenical Patriarch [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] by Cardinal Humbertus, papal legate, the conventional date point of the [[Great Schism]]. Michael returns the favor by [[excommunication|excommunicating]] the Pope (who had died, rendering his legate's authority null).
*1059 Beginning of the use of the term ''transubstantiation'' in West.
*1066 Invasion of England by Duke William of Normandy, carrying papal banner and with papal blessing as a crusade against the "erring English church," engineered by Hildebrand, archdeacon of Rome.
*1073-1085 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Gregory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and institutes [[Gregorian Reforms]], the largest increase of papal power in history, including the claim to be able to depose secular rulers.
*1075 Pope Gregory VII issues ''Dictatus papae'', an extreme statement of papal power.
*ca. 1078-80 Council of Burgos reorganizes national Church of Spain as Roman Archbishopric, replaces use of Mozarabic rite with Roman. Sentences Bishops who refuse to recognize decrees to imprisonment.
*1095-1272 [[Crusades]] promise salvation to warriors from the West.
*1098 Abp. [[w:Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm of Canterbury]] completes ''[[w:Cur Deus Homo|Cur Deus Homo]]'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East; Pope [[w:Pope Urban II|Urban II]] called the [[w:Council of Bari|Council of Bari]], attended by more than 180 Roman Catholic bishops, including noted theologian Anselm of Canterbury (the founder of rationalistic Western Scholasticism) who defended the ''[[filioque]]'' clause, with the result that the Roman Catholic-dominated council affirmed the ''filoque'' and anathematized those who were opposed to it.<ref>Rev. A. H. Hore. ''[ Eighteen centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church].'' London: James Parker & Co. 1899. pp. 413-414.</ref><ref>[[w:Claude Fleury|Claude Fleury]]. ''"Histoire Ecclesiastique".'' t. XIII, p. 625.</ref>
*1139 [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] declared all priestly marriages annulled and declared clerical [[celibacy]] the rule for all Roman Catholic priests from that day forward ([[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], canons 6 and 7).
*1170 Council of Constantinople, attended by many Eastern and Western Bishops, on the reunion of the Eastern and Latin Churches, without effect.<ref name=MCCLINTOCKandSTRONG491>Rev. John McClintock (D.D.),and James Strong (S.T.D.). ''Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature.'' Vol. II - C, D. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1868. p. 491.</ref><ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 4.</ref>
*1180 Last formal reception of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar, in Antioch.
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]] (formerly [[Monothelitism|Monothelite]] heretics) submit to Rome.
*1187 [[w:Saladin|Saladin]] retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at [[w:Battle of Hattin (1187)|Battle of Hattin]], and returns Christian holy places to the [[Church of Jerusalem|Orthodox Church]].
*1204 [[Fourth Crusade]] sacks Constantinople; Crusaders set up Latin Empire and Patriarchate of Constantinople (lasting until 1261).<ref group="note">Speros Vryonis in ''Byzantium and Europe'' gives a vivid account of the sack of Constantinople by the Frankish and Venetian Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade:
The Latin soldiery subjected the greatest city in Europe to an indescribable sack. For three days they murdered, raped, looted and destroyed on a scale which even the ancient Vandals and Goths would have found unbelievable. Constantinople had become a veritable museum of ancient and Byzantine art, an emporium of such incredible wealth that the Latins were astounded at the riches they found. Though the Venetians had an appreciation for the art which they discovered (they were themselves semi-Byzantines) and saved much of it, the French and others destroyed indiscriminately, halting to refresh themselves with wine, violation of nuns, and murder of Orthodox clerics. The Crusaders vented their hatred for the Greeks most spectacularly in the desecration of the greatest Church in Christendom. They smashed the silver iconostasis, the icons and the holy books of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]], and seated upon the patriarchal throne a whore who sang coarse songs as they drank wine from the Church's holy vessels. The estrangement of East and West, which had proceeded over the centuries, culminated in the horrible massacre that accompanied the conquest of Constantinople. The Greeks were convinced that even the Turks, had they taken the city, would not have been as cruel as the Latin Christians. The defeat of Byzantium, already in a state of decline, accelerated political degeneration so that the Byzantines eventually became an easy prey to the Turks. The Crusading movement thus resulted, ultimately, in the victory of Islam, a result which was of course the exact opposite of its original intention. (Vryonis, Speros. ''Byzantium and Europe''. Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1967. pp.152); (Philip Hughes. [ "History of the Church Vol II"], ''Innocent III & the Latin East''. Sheed & Ward, 1948. pp.372.)</blockquote></small></ref>
*1205 Latins annex Athens and convert the Parthenon into a Roman Catholic Church - ''Santa Maria di Athene'', later ''Notre Dame d'Athene''.
*1211 Venetian crusaders conquer Byzantine Crete.
*1224 The Byzantines recover Thessaloniki and surrounding area, liberated by the Greek ruler of Epirus Theodore Ducas Comnenus.
*1231 Monk-martyrs and Confessors of the Monastery of Panagia of [[w:Kantara Castle|Kantara]], on Cyprus, who suffered under the Latins (1231).<ref>''[ May 19/June 1].'' Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).</ref><ref>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[ Οἱ Ἅγιοι Βαρνάβας, Γεννάδιος, Γεράσιμος, Γερμανός, Θεόγνωστος, Θεόκτιστος, Ἱερεμίας, Ἰωάννης, Ἰωσήφ, Κόνων, Κύριλλος, Μάξιμος καὶ Μάρκος οἱ Ὁσιομάρτυρες].'' 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref>
*1234 Delegates of the two churches met first at [[Nicaea]] and then at [[w:Nymphaion_(Ionia)#History|Nymphaeum]] (Asia Minor), negotiating the issues related to the union of the Churches, including dogmatic issues, however the dialogue came to a dead end.<ref name=BANEV>Banev Guentcho. ''[ John III Vatatzes].'' Transl. Koutras, Nikolaos. '''Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor (EHW)'''. 12/16/2002.</ref>
*1236 Pope [[w:Pope Gregory IX|Gregory IX]] issued a crusading bull authorizing a crusade against the Byzantines under Emperor [[John III Doukas Vatatzes|John Vatatzes]], on the occasion of the joint Byzantine-Bulgarian siege of Latin Constantinople.<ref name="BANEV"/>
*1259 Byzantines defeat Latin [[w:Principality of Achaea|Principality of Achaea]] at the [[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]], marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece.
*ca.1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iveron Monastery]].<ref>Great Synaxaristes {{el icon}} ''[ Οἱ Ἅγιοι Ἰβηρίτες Ὁσιομάρτυρες].'' ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref><ref>[ Martyrs killed by the Latins at the Iveron Monastery on Mt. Athos]. OCA - Feasts and Saints.</ref><ref>[ May]. Self-Ruled Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America.</ref><ref group="note">The Crusaders demanded that the Iveron monks convert to Catholicism and acknowledge the primacy of the Roman pope. But the monks condemned their fallacies and anathematized the doctrine of the Catholics. According to the [[Patericon]] of Athos, the Iveron monks were forcibly expelled from their monastery. Nearly two hundred elderly monks were goaded like animals onto a ship that was subsequently sunk in the depths of the sea. The younger, healthier monks were deported to Italy and sold as slaves to the Jews. Some sources claim this tragedy took place in the year 1259, while others record that the Georgian monks of the Holy Mountain were subject to the Latin persecutions over the course of four years, from 1276 to 1280.</ref>
*1260-1571 Subjugation of [[Church of Cyprus]] to the [[Roman Catholic Church]].
*1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos makes [[Mystras]] seat of the new [[w:Despotate of Morea|Despotate of Morea]], where a Byzantine renaissance occurred; Pope Urban IV endeavoured without success to stir up a crusade to restore the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
*1263 Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas writes ''[[w:Contra Errores Graecorum|Contra Errores Graecorum]]'' (''Against the Errors of the Greeks'').
*1264 The festival of [[w:Corpus Christi (feast)|Corpus Christi]] ("the Body of Christ") is instituted by Pope Urban IV.
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.
*1274 [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]] fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy.
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].
*1282 Death of 26 [[Zographou martyrs|martyrs of Zographou monastery]] on [[Mount Athos]], martyred by the Latins.
*1287 Last record of, [[Amalfion]], Benedictine monastery on Mount Athos.
*1300-1400 The ''"[[w:Chronicle of the Morea|Chronicle of Morea]]"'' (Το χρονικό του Μορέως) narrates events of the establishment of Western European feudalism in mainland Greece, mainly in the Morea/Peloponnese, by the Franks following the Fourth Crusade, covering a period from 1204 to 1292.
*1302 Papal bull ''Unam Sanctam'' declares submission to pope necessary for salvation.
*1379 Beginning of Western "Great Schism," during which there are eventually 3 rival popes.
*1341-1351 [[Ninth Ecumenical Council|Councils in Constantinople]] vindicate [[Gregory Palamas|Palamite]] theology of hesychasm against [[Barlaam of Calabria|Barlaamist]] philosophy.
*1409 [[w:Council of Pisa|Council of Pisa]] is convened and presided over by [[w:Gui de Maillesec|Cardinal de Malesset]], [[w:Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Palestrina|Bishop of Palestrina]], and attended by 4 Latin patriarchs, 22 cardinals, 80 bishops and hundreds of lower clergy, whereby both reigning Popes Gregory XII of Rome and Benedict XIII of Avignon were deposed as heretics, being a recognition of the fact that Patriarchs and Popes were subordinate to the Councils of the Church.<ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved: 25 February 2015.</ref><ref>Rev. A. H. Hore. ''[ Eighteen centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church].'' London: James Parker & Co. 1899. p. 464.</ref>
*1414-1418 Council of Constance ends Western "Great Schism;" this council emphasized the [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over the authority of the pope.
*1415 The 13th Session of the [[w:Council of Constance|Council of Constance]] (June 15, 1415) decreed that the administering of the [[w:Communion under both kinds|Eucharist in Both Kinds]] to the [[Laity]] was to be forbidden, and that the [[Laity]] should receive the [[Eucharist]] under one kind only, that of the Bread, even though the Council itself noted that: ''"[[Christ]] instituted and administered to his disciples this venerable sacrament under both kinds of bread and wine; and that it was received by the faithful in the primitive church under both kinds."''<ref>Prof. Archibald Bower (Esq.) and Rev. Samuel Hanson Cox (D.D.). ''[ The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758, Volume 3].'' Philadelphia: Griffith & Simon, 1845. pp.188-190.</ref><ref>Papal Encyclicals Online. [ Council of Constance 1414-18: SESSION 13 - 15 June 1415].</ref><ref group="note">The Council also stated that no priest, under pain of excommunication, may communicate the people under the forms of both bread and wine:<br>
:<small>This holy synod also decrees and declares, regarding this matter, that instructions are to be sent to the most reverend fathers and lords in Christ, patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, and their vicars in spirituals, wherever they may be, in which they are to be commissioned and ordered on the authority of this sacred council and under pain of excommunication, to punish effectively those who err against this decree.</small><br>
Papal Encyclicals Online. [ Council of Constance 1414-18: SESSION 13 - 15 June 1415].</ref><ref group="note">The XXI session of the [[w:Council of Trent|Council of Trent]] (July 1562) further discussed the "The Doctrine Of Communion Under Both Kinds And The Communion Of Little Children". Besides declaring that "communion under either form is sufficient for salvation", and "the Church may, according to circumstances, times and places, determine or change whatever she may judge most expedient", reinforces the decree from the Council of Constance:<br>
:<small>"...the reasons which moved the holy Catholic Church to decree that laymen and priests not celebrating are to communicate under the one species of bread only, are so stringent that under no circumstances is the use of the chalice to be permitted to anyone"</small><br>
EWTN Global Catholic Network. ''"Canons On Communion Under Both Species And That Of Little Children."'' [ THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. Session XXI - The fifth under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the sixteenth day of July, 1562].</ref>
*1423-24 [[w:Council of Siena|Council of Siena]] in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of [[w:Conciliarism|conciliarism]], emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy.
*1433 [[w:Nicholas of Kues|Nicolas of Cusa]] writes his major work on church government, ''The Catholic Concordance'' (''De concordantia catholica''), a manifesto of [[w:Conciliarism|conciliarism]], advancing the notion of a constitutional papacy subject to the authority of a council representative of the different parts of Christendom, balancing hierarchy with consent.
*1439 [[Council of Florence]] fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy and confesses Purgatory as dogma; St. [[Mark of Ephesus]] courageously defended Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence, being the only Eastern bishop to refuse to sign the decrees of the council, regarded as a '''Pillar of Orthodoxy''' by the Church.<ref group="note">Saints [[Photius the Great]], [[Mark of Ephesus]], and [[Gregory Palamas]], have been called the '''Three Pillars of Orthodoxy'''.</ref>
*1444 Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla proves ''Donation of Constantine'' a forgery.
*1450 Council of Constantinople convoked by Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]] declined to accept the resolutions passed by the [[Council of Florence]] which were in favor of the union of the Greek and Latin churches.<ref name=MCCLINTOCKandSTRONG491/><ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/>
*1452 Unification of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] and [[Greek Orthodox]] Churches in the [[cathedral]] of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on [[December 12]], five months before the city fell, on the West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed by the former Metropolitan of Kiev [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]] (who had participated in the [[Council of Florence]] and was now a cardinal in the Roman Catholic church) who read the solemn promulgation of union and celebrated the union liturgy, including the name of the [[pope]], arousing the greatest agitation among the population of the city.<ref>[[w:George Ostrogorsky|Georgije Ostrogorski]]. ''[ History of the Byzantine State].'' Rutgers University Press, 1969. p.568.</ref><ref name="Hinson">E. Glenn Hinson. ''[ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.</ref><ref group="note">Although some of the Greek party, especially [[w:Basilios Bessarion|Bessarion, Metropolitan of Nicaea]], and [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]], former Metropolitan of Kiev and all all Rus', showed real concern for unity, they could not rally support for it in the East. The Patriarchates of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]] and the churches of [[Church of Russia|Russia]], [[Church of Romania|Romania]], and [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]] all rejected it immediately. In Byzantium only a small minority accepted it. Emperors John VIII and and [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine IX]] (1448-1453) proved unable to force their will on the Church. Most Byzantines felt betrayed. (E. Glenn Hinson. ''[ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.)</ref>

==Renaissance and Modern Era==
*1453 Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks;<ref group="note">[[w:Loukas Notaras|Loukas Notaras]] the last [[w:Megas doux|Megas Doux]] of the Byzantine Empire, had remarked: ''"better the turban of the Turk than the tiara of the Pope!"'' This was typical of the sentiment among the monastic party, opposed to the Council of Ferrara-Florence, of whom the future Patriarch [[Gennadius Scholarius]] was the leader.</ref> numerous Greek scholars flee to West, triggering European Renaissance.
*1463 Greek scholar and pro-unionist [[w:Basilios Bessarion|Basilios Bessarion]], formerly an Orthodox Metropolitan, later becoming a Roman Catholic Cardinal, is given the purely ceremonial title of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' by Pope Pius II.
*1472 Decrees of the Council of Ferrara-Florence repudiated by [[Church of Constantinople|Patriarchate of Contantinople]]; martyrdom of [[Isidore of Yuriev]] and 72 companions for refusing to convert to Roman Catholicism.
*1484 [[Council of Constantinople (1484)|Synod of Constantinople]] with all four Patriarchs in attendance, calling itself "ecumenical", officially repudiated the union of the Greek and Latin churches discussed at Florence in 1439, and determined that Latin converts to Orthodoxy should be received into the Church by [[Chrismation]].
*1518 The Greek Orthodox [[Church of Saints Peter and Paul of the Greeks (Naples, Italy)|Church of Saints Peter and Paul]] is founded in Naples, Italy, to serve the needs of Orthodox faithful who became refugees after the [[Fall of Constantinople]].
*1539 The Greek Orthodox [[San Giorgio dei Greci (Venice, Italy)|Cathedral of Saint George in Venice]] is founded in Venice Italy (completed in 1573), to serve the needs of Orthodox faithful in the West.
*1545-63 Council of Trent answers charges of Protestant Reformation.
*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].
*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.
*1573 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Congregation for the Greeks, a committee of cardinals who addressed issues relating to the Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily in the hope of resolving tensions between Greeks and Latins.
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the '[[w:Greek_Pontifical_College#Collegio_Greco|Greek College]]') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.
*1582 Institution of [[Gregorian Calendar]].
*1583 Arrival of the first Jesuits in Constantinople and constant proselytization by the Roman Catholic Church in the Ottoman Empire.<ref name=VRASIDAS158>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). ''The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity.'' Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. p. 158.</ref><ref group="note">Orthodox dioceses were divided between Roman Catholic Venetian rulers and the Ottoman sultanate. Whereas under the latter they enjoyed relative freedom of religious expression, this was not the case in the Venetian-ruled areas. There all Orthodox bishops and metropolitans were replaced by Latin representatives of the pope.</ref>
*1595-1596 Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] declared in his Constitution ''Magnus Dominus'' (23 Dec. 1595), which announced the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk|Union of Brest]], that Orthodox [[Chrismation|Chrism]] was not valid and had to be repeated by a Roman Catholic bishop and that all Orthodox clergy had to accept the union;<ref group="note">The document shows that membership in the Church of God was seen as essentially conditioned by communion with the Pope of Rome. Those who do not belong to the Roman-Catholic Church cannot be saved because they are not members of the Church of God as such. Membership in the Roman Catholic Church was thus thought of as the only possible way of attaining salvation.
:* <small>Wacław Hryniewicz. ''[ The Challenge of Our Hope: Christian Faith in Dialogue].'' Volume 32 of Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. CRVP, 2007. p. 227.</small></ref> [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and creation of the [[Unia]] (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics);<ref group="note">"The origins of the [[Unia]] are found in the Lateran Council of 1215 and in the Bull of “Pope” Innocent IV. Officially, however, two Jesuits, [[w:Antonio Possevino|Antonio Possevino]] (1533-1611) and [[w:Piotr Skarga|Peter Skarga]] (1536-1612), created the Unia in Poland. These two monks put Unia in practice in Poland. They did this in order to [[Latinization|Latinize]] the Orthodox of Poland and Northwestern Russia. The King of Poland, Sigismund III, whom the two Jesuits had raised, helped them in this."
:* <small>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 31.</small></ref> after initially having supported rapproachement with Rome, Bp. [[Hedeon (Balaban) of Lviv]] opposed the Union of Brest until his death; in Italy, the Greek language was forbidden in the liturgy and the [[w:Greek Pontifical College of Saint Athanasius|College of St Athanasius]] (formally established in Rome in 1577) became one of the main centres of anti-Orthodox propaganda;<ref name=VRASISAS>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. pp. 158, 160-161.</ref> Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] also replaced all Orthodox bishops with his own people, a policy that alienated local Orthodox populations, who yearned for the religious tolerance enjoyed by Ottoman subjects.<ref name=VRASISAS/>
*1597 Death of Nicephorus, the [[Protosyngellos]] of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had supported the Orthodox synod at Brest (against the Uniate synod), and was sentenced to prison by the high court of Poland on charges of espionage.
*1611 [[w:Gallicanism|Gallican]] French theologian [ Edmund Richer] (1559-1631), author of ''De ecclesiastica et politica potestate,'' held the view that [[w:Conciliarism|ecclesiastical councils]], not the papacy, was the method by which doctrinal truth was established, but his work was censured at the Council of Aix-en-Provence in 1612; this ‘richérisme’ strongly influenced 18th century Jansenism.
*1620 [[Council of Moscow (1620)|Council of Moscow]] presided over by Patr. [[Philaret (Romanov) of Moscow|Philaret of Moscow]] insisted that only Orthodox [[Baptism]] by triple immersion was valid, and that all Latin converts had to be rebaptized.
*1623 Death of turbulent Uniate Bp. [[w:Josaphat Kuntsevych|Josaphat Kuntsevych]] who openly persecuted the Orthodox to such a degree that he was even rebuked by the Lithuanian chancellor Leo Sapiega, the representative of the Polish king himself.<ref name="Ivanov">Deacon Herman Ivanov-Treenadzaty. ''[ The Vatican and Russia].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.XL, No.2 [March-April 1990], pp. 8-24.</ref><ref group="note">The most convincing condemnation of Kuntsevich's character is found in a letter dated March 12, 1622, one and a half years before his death, from the Lithuanian chancellor Leo Sapiega, clearly a Roman Catholic, the representative of the Polish king himself:<br>
::"By thoughtless violence you oppress the Russian people and urge them on to revolt. You are aware of the censure of the simple people, that it would be better to be in Turkish captivity than to endure such persecutions for faith and piety. You write that you freely drown the Orthodox, chop off their heads, and profane their churches. You seal their churches so the people, without piety and Christian rites, are buried like non-Christians. In place of joy, your cunning Uniatism has brought us only woe, unrest, and conflict. We would prefer to be without it. These are the fruits of your Uniatism."<br>
These words are not the fantasies or the slanders of a fanatically-tempered Orthodox, but the contents of a historical letter from the head of a Roman Catholic state, the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, written on behalf of the Polish King to a turbulent Uniate bishop. (Deacon Herman Ivanov-Treenadzaty. ''[ The Vatican and Russia].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.XL, No.2 [March-April 1990], pp. 8-24.)<br>
See also:<br>
:Fr. [[w:Lev Gillet|Lev Gillet]]. Review of: ''S. Josaphat Hieromartyr. Documenta romana beatifications et canonizationis, I, 1623-1628. By Athanasius G. Welykyj, OSBM. Analecta OSBM,Series II. Rome, 1952. xxv + 306 pages.'' '''The Slavonic and East European Review.''' Vol.31, No.77, Jun., 1953. p.596.</ref>
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].
*1648 Martyrdom of Igumen [[Athanasius of Bretsk|Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk]] due to his very strong opposition to the [[Union of Brest]].
*1671 French Roman Catholic nun [[w:Marguerite Marie Alacoque|Margaret Mary Alacoque]] promoted devotion to the Cult of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart]] of Jesus in its modern form.<ref group="note">Marguerite Marie Alacoque was briefly preceeded in establishing the devotion to the Sacred Hearts by her contemporary Fr. [[w:Jean Eudes|Jean Eudes]] (canonized in 1925), a French missionary who was founder of the [[w:Congregation of Jesus and Mary|Congregation of Jesus and Mary]], of the [[w:Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge|Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge]], and author of the Propers for Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. The feast of the [[w:Immaculate Heart of Mary|Holy Heart of Mary]] was celebrated for the first time in 1648, and that of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart of Jesus]] in 1672.</ref>
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
*1722 Council in Constantinople, in which Athanasios of Antioch (+1724) and Chrysanthos of Jerusalem (1707-1731) participated, decided for the re-baptism of the Latins.<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Fr. George Dragas. ''[ The Manner of Reception of Roman Catholic Converts into the Orthodox Church].'' Myriobiblos Library. Retrieved: 2014-05-09.</ref>
*1724 [[Melkite]] [[Schism]], in which many [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian Orthodox]] become Greek Catholics; Old Catholic Schism: on October 15, 1724 Roman Catholic Bp. Dominique (Varlet) of Baghdad consecrated the first dissident bishop of Utrecht, Bp. Cornelius van Steenhoven (elected in 1723), as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the Old Catholic Churches.<ref group="note">The Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands headquartered at the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands was [[w:Ultrajectine|Ultrajectine]] in tradition, rejecting papal infallibility and holding to the belief that only the Church in Ecumenical Council may speak infallibly; it was Roman Catholic in liturgy and belief, but refused to submit to Papal abuses.</ref>
*1740 [[w:Pope Benedict XIV|Pope Benedict XIV]] (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini) promulgated the encyclical ''Pastoralis Romani Pontificis'' on March 30, in which he enforced and declared that he, his predecessors, and all his successors hold Papal Infallibility, and that [[Ecumenical Councils|ecumenical councils]] should be discouraged, as they can undermine one of the principle pillars of the papacy - infallibility.
*1755 [[Synod of Constantinople (1755)|Synod of Constantinople]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia.
*ca.1770 About 1,200 Kiev region Uniate churches return to Orthodoxy under political pressure from Russia.
*1779 Death of New Hieromartyr and Equal-to-the-Apostles [[Cosmas of Aetolia|Kosmas Aitolos]], who prophecied that Christians should condemn the position of the Pope since he will be the root of many catastrophes: ''‘You should curse the Pope, because he will be the cause of harm.’''<ref group="note">{{el icon}}: “Τον Παπα να καταράσθε, διότι αυτός θα είναι η αιτία του κακού”. See:<br>
:* Saint [[Cosmas of Aetolia|Kosmas (ho Aitōlos)]], Fr. Nomikos Michael Vaporis. ''Father Kosmas, the Apostle of the Poor: The Life of St. Kosmas Aitolos, together with an English translation of his teaching and letters.'' Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1977. 164pp. ISBN 9780916586102</ref>
*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimus of Jerusalem]] contended in the ''Paternal Teaching'' (''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'') that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].<ref>"Greece, history of." Encyclopædia Britannica. ''Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Ultimate Reference Suite''. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.</ref><ref>Richard Clogg. ''The 'Dhidhaskalia Patriki' (1798): An Orthodox Reaction to French Revolutionary Propaganda.'' '''Middle Eastern Studies''', Vol.5, No.2 (May, 1969), pp. 87-115.</ref><ref group="note">The ''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'' or ''Paternal Teaching,'' attributed to the Patriarch Anthimos of Jerusalem, and published in Istanbul in 1798, described the attitude of the Orthodox hierarchy during the late eighteenth century to the influence of Western ideas in the Greek world. The ''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'' has in fact achieved a certain notoriety among historians as one of the more extreme examples of ecclesiastical anti-Westernism, and its significance was not lost on contemporaries.</ref>
*ca.1830 [[w:Slavophile|Slavophile movement]] co-founded by [[Alexei Stepanovich Khomiakov|Alexei Khomiakov]] and [[w:Ivan Kireyevsky|Ivan Kireyevsky]] in Russia, drawing on the works of Greek patristics, Russian poets and literary critics to reinforce Orthodox Christian values and Slavic cultural traditions, denouncing "westernizations" by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, and stressing Russian mysticism over Western rationalism.<ref group="note">For a discussion of Khomyakov see:<br>
:Joseph L. Wieczynski. ''Khomyakov's Critique of Western Christianity.'' '''Church History'''. Vol.38, No.3, Sep., 1969. pp.291-299.</ref>
*1838 [[Council of Constantinople (1838)|Council of Constantinople]] held, attended by Patriarchs Gregory VI of Constantinople and Athanasius V of Jerusalem, whose main theme was the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Unia]], and the extermination of Latin dogmas and usages, in particular [[Absolution Certificates]].<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Sergei Govorun. ''[ Indulgences in the history of the Greek Church].'' Transl. by Bishop Tikhon of San Francisco & the West. 25/11/2004.</ref>
*1842 Russian diplomat [[w:Ivan Gagarin|Ivan Sergeyevich Gagarin]] converted to the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Jesuit Order, becoming dedicated to union between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.<ref group="note">Despite the failure of his unionist activity, Gagarin exerted important influence on such contemporary and later Roman Catholic and Russian thinkers as [[w:Pope Pius IX|Pope Pius IX]], [[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Alexei Khomiakov]] and [[w:Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)|Vladimir Solovev]].</ref>
*1847 Restoration of [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem]] by Pope Pius IX; [[w:1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia|1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia]].
*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as [[heresy]], declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]."
*1853-56 [[w:Crimean War|Crimean War]] is fought between Russia on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire, Britain, France, and (later) Sardinia on the other, ostensibly over which church would be recognized as the "sovereign authority" of the Christian faith in the [[Holy Land]], and over Russia's claim of protection over the Greek Christians in the Turkish Empire; the French Catholic Abp. of Paris [[w:Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour|Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour]] pronounded that this was a [[w:Just War|holy war]] against the Orthodox.<ref group="note">"It is a sacred deed, a God-pleasing deed, to ward off the Photian heresy [Orthodoxy], subjugate it and destroy it with a new crusade. This is the clear goal of today's crusade. Such was the goal of all the crusades, even if all their participants were not fully aware of it. The war which France is now preparing to wage against Russia is not a political war but a holy war. It is not a war between two governments or between two peoples, but is precisely a religious war, and other reasons presented are only pretexts." (Deacon Herman Ivanov-Treenadzaty. ''[ The Vatican and Russia].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.XL, No.2 [March-April 1990], pp. 8-24.); (In: Monseigneur [[w:Charles Journet|Charles Journet]]. ''[ "Exigences chretiennes en politique"].'' Ed. L.V.F. Paris, 1945. p.274.)</ref>
*1854 Declaration of Immaculate Conception of Mary as [[dogma]].
*1857-66 [[w:Jacques Paul Migne|J.P. Migne]] produces the ''[[w:Patrologia Graeca|Patrologia Graeca]]'' in 161 volumes, including both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant in the Western Church in the 3rd century.
*1863 Abbé [[Vladimir Guettée]], a French [[Roman Catholic]] priest who converted to the [[Orthodox Church]], writes ''"[ The Papacy: Its Historic Origin and Primitve Relations with the Eastern Churches]",'' a strong criticism of the Papacy.
*1870 Declaration of Papal Infallibility to be dogma at First Vatican Council.
*1875 Uniate diocese of [[w:Chełm|Chelm]] in modern day Poland incorporated into [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] under Alexander II, with all of the local Uniates converted to Orthodoxy.
*1889 Roman Catholic priest Fr. [[Julius of Goa|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] (Julius of Goa) and hundreds of Goan Catholic families (approximately 5000 Roman Catholics) left the [[w:Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman|Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman]] and joined the [[Church of India|Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church]] as the ''[[Brahmavar (Goan) Orthodox Church|Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India]],'' with Fr. Antonio being ordained as the first (Latin-Rite) Oriental-Orthodox Metropolitan of Goa-Ceylon (1889-1923).<ref group="note">Fr. [[w:Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] (Mar Julius I) was consecrated in 1889 by St. [[w:Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala|Gregorios of Parumala]], Metr. Athanasius Paulos of Aluva, and Malankara Metr. [[w:Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II|Dionysius Joseph II]]; this church maintained relations with the Syrian Orthodox Patr. of Antioch Mar [[w:Ignatius Peter IV|Ignatius Peter III]], and was permitted to continue its Latin or Western rite liturgical practices.</ref>
*1894 ''[[w:Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae|Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae]]'' (''on the Reunion of Christendom''), an Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on [[June 20]], called for the reunion of Eastern and Western churches into the "Unity of the Faith", while also condemning Freemasonry; criticized by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VII in 1895; Pope Leo XIII issues ''[[w:Orientalium Dignitas|Orientalium Dignitas]],'' a papal encyclical concerning the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] including a prohibition aganist [[Latinization|Latinizing]] influences among Eastern Catholics.
*1895 Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch [[Anthimus VII (Tsatsos) of Constantinople|Anthimus VII]], and attended by 13 bishops, condemns all the [[w:Levantines (Latin Christians)|Franco-Latin]] [[Heresy|heresies]], including the new false dogma of the so-called [[Immaculate Conception]] of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly [[Papal Infallibility|infallible]] and undeposable.<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-05.</ref>
*1908 English Roman Catholic priest and Byzantine scholar Dr. [[w:Adrian Fortescue (priest)|Adrian Fortescue]] writes ''[ The Orthodox Eastern Church],'' written to teach Roman Catholics and people in the West about the [[Orthodox Church]].
*1914 Martyrdom of Fr. [[Maxim Sandovich]], Protomartyr of the [[w:Lemkos|Lemko]] people.
*1918 The "St. Sophia Redemption Committee" is formed in Britain after the [[w:Armistice Day|Armistice]], whose members included two future Foreign Secretaries and many prominent public figures, seeking to restore [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] into an Orthodox Church (1918-1922);<ref>Prof. Erik Goldstein. ''Holy Wisdom and British Foreign Policy, 1918-1922: The St. Sophia Redemption Agitation''. In '''Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies''' Vol.15 (1991): pp.36-64.</ref> Roman Catholic opposition to the St Sophia Redemption Committee included Msgr. Manuel Bidwell (Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Westminster) who was on the initial committee, Roman Catholic British MP Sir [[w:Stuart Coats|Stuart Coats]] also on the committee, Cardinal [[w:Pietro Gasparri|Pietro Gasparri]] the [[w:Cardinal Secretary of State|Papal Secretary of State]], and the Vatican who wished to block [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] from becoming a Greek Orthodox Church again according to the [[w:Grand Vizier|Grand Vizier]] of Constantinople who had an offer of Papal support.<ref>Prof. Erik Goldstein. ''Holy Wisdom and British Foreign Policy, 1918-1922: The St. Sophia Redemption Agitation''. In '''Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies''' Vol.15 (1991): pp.46,47,59.</ref><ref group="note">
[[w:Stuart Coats|Coats]] pointed out that in 1453 Constantinople had officially been in communion with Rome as a [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] church. As such, he argued, St. Sophia should continue as a Greek Rite Uniate Church. Cardinal [[w:Pietro Gasparri|Gaspari]] gave an interview to the French press while in Paris to observe the peace negotiations, explaining that from Rome's viewpoint the great church had been catholic longer than anything else, being only in schismatic hands from the time of [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] to the [[Council of Florence]]. The Grand Vizier of Constantinople indicated to the British that he had an offer of Papal support, as the Vatican wished to block St. Sophia becoming a Greek Orthodox Church. The Rev. J.A. Douglas, a member of the Redemption Committee reported that:<br>
:" 'The traditional diplomacy of the Vatican has certainly laboured for decades under the influence of what would happen if the Oecumenical Patriarch, a dangerous witness against Roman claims, even when half-buried in the slum of the Phanar and paralysed by Turkish tyranny, should emerge and be the symbol of a great and progressive Communion which functioned with glorious St. Sophia as its mother church.' "<br>
(Prof. Erik Goldstein. ''Holy Wisdom and British Foreign Policy, 1918-1922: The St. Sophia Redemption Agitation''. In '''Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies''' Vol.15 (1991): p.48.)</ref>
*1924-26 [[Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky (Warsaw)]] is demolished by Polish authorities less than 15 years after its construction.
*1923 [[w:Pope Pius XI|Pope Pius XI]] proclaimed the controversial Uniate Bp. [[w:Josaphat Kuntsevych|Josaphat Kuntsevych]] a "hieromartyr" on the 300th anniversary of his death, in the encyclical ''Ecclesiam Dei'' (''The Church of God'').
*1925 [[w:Concordat of 1925|Concordat of 1925]] between Poland and the Holy See included recognition of the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate Church]] in Poland.<ref>D. Doroshenko. ''The Uniat Church in Galicia (1914-17).'' '''The Slavonic and East European Review'''. Vol.12, No.36, April 1934. pp.622-627.</ref>
*1926 The Benedictine monastery [[w:Chevetogne Abbey|Chevetogne Abbey]] is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day; the [ Society of St. John Chrysostom] is founded to promote awareness and friendship in the Christian West for Christians of the East, through prayer and liturgy, conferences and lectures, and praying for the unity of the Churches of East and West; [[w:Pope Pius XI|Pope Pius XI]] decides to attempt the establishment of a provisional hierarchy for the Roman Catholic Church without the knowledge of the Soviet government;<ref group="note">The Pope's plans were set down in the [[w:Papal rescripts|rescript]] ''Plenitudine Potestatis'' and the decree ''Quo aptius'', and involved the establishment of [[w:Apostolic Administrator|Apostolic Administrators]] in metropolitan centres, to replace the diocesan structures that had existed in Tsarist times. (Christopher Lawrence Zugger. ''The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet Empire from Lenin Through Stalin.'' Syracuse University Press. 2001. p.229.)</ref> French Jesuit scholar and Roman Catholic bishop [[w:Michel d'Herbigny|Michel d'Herbigny]] receives episcopal ordination in secret and behind closed doors from Eugenio Pacelli (the future [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]]) in the failed attempt to establish a clandestine hierarchy for the Catholic Church in the Soviet Union during the religious persecutions of the 1920s.
*1929 Papacy and the Kingdom of Italy ratify the [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]], bringing to an end the so-called "[[w:Roman Question|Roman Question]]";<ref group="note">The [[w:Politics of Vatican City|Politics of Vatican City]] takes place in a framework of an '''absolute [[w:Theocracy|theocratic]] monarchy''', in which the head of the [[Roman Catholic Church]], the [[Pope]], exercises ex officio supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the '''State of the Vatican City''' (an entity distinct from the '''Holy See'''), a rare case of non-hereditary monarchy. According to the text of the treaty the Holy See characterizes itself as a neutral State, with a declaration of intent to remain outside any territorial competition (''[ Lateran Treaty], Art.24, para.1,2'').</ref> [[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]] (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]; Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating [[celibacy]], resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938.
*1930 A Pan-Orthodox Consultation in [[Mount Athos]] concluded that the only possible relations on the part of the Orthodox toward the Roman Catholics was "Relations of defense on the part of the Orthodox toward Roman Catholic [[Proselytism]]."<ref name="NICON">Rev. Nicon D. Patrinacos. ''A Dictionary of Greek Orthodoxy - Λεξικον Ελλινικης Ορθοδοξιας.'' Light and Life Publishing, 1984. p.323.</ref>
*1937 [[w:Pope Pius XI|Pope Pius XI]] issued the encyclical ''[[w:Divini Redemptoris|Divini Redemptoris]]'', condemning Communism and the Soviet regime; the [[Church of Serbia|Serbian Orthodox Church]] led by Patr. [[Varnava (Rosic) of Serbia]] and Bp. [[Nikolai Velimirovic]] fiercely resisted the attempt by the government of Yugoslavian Prime Minister [[w:Milan Stojadinović|Milan Stojadinović]] to implement a [[w:Concordat|Concordat]] with the [[w:Holy See|Vatican]], which would have virtually established the [[Roman Catholic Church]] in Yugoslavia and granted it privileges denied to the Orthodox Church, resulting in the proposal never being ratified.<ref group="note">This treaty would have given enormous priviledges to the Roman Catholic Church which was actually a minority church in Yugoslavia (according to the 1931 census 48.7% of population were Orthodox, while 38% were Roman Catholic). The Serbs felt this to be an attack on the Orthodox Church, and the Church together with virtually all the Serbian people mounted unprecedented resistance to the proposed agreement. In the midst of the crisis Patriarch [[Varnava (Rosic) of Serbia|Varnava (Rosic)]] died. His health had suffered under the strain of the controversy, and it was even rumored that he had been poisoned. The concordat was passed by the parliament on the very day the patriarch died, and was immediately followed by the [[excommunication]] of those Serbian deputies who voted in favor of it. There was also a demonstration organized by the Church and headed by bishops and clergy that set out from the cathedral in Belgrade and was violently broken up by the police. The prime minister had a serious crisis on his hands and withdrew the proposal.</ref>
*1938 In the [[w:Volhynia|Volhynia]] region of modern day Western Ukraine, by 1938 the Polish government had overseen the destruction of 190 Orthodox churches and converted a further 150 churches to Roman Rite Catholicism, despite its Ukrainian majority, and despite Pope Leo XIII's encycical ''[[w:Orientalium Dignitas|Orientalium Dignitas]]'' of 1894; the few Orthodox churches that were permitted to stay open were forced to use the Polish language in their liturgies.<ref name="Kania">Dr. Andrew Thomas Kania. ''[ Moral Hemophilia: Concept and Reality (cf. Luke 10: 29 – 37)].'' Fri 28 of Aug., 2009 11:13 EST;</ref> [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Eastern Catholic]] parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].

==WWII and Post-WWII Era==
*1939 The last remaining Orthodox Church in [[w:Lutsk|Lutsk]], the Volhynian capital was converted by Polish State decree to [[Roman rite|Roman Rite]] Catholicism.<ref name="Kania"/>
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]]<ref group="note">A Croatian fascist, anti-Yugoslav separatist movement, whose ideological movement was a blend of fascism, Nazism, Croatian ultranationalism, and Roman Catholic [[w:Clerical fascism|Clericalist]] [[w:Fundamentalist Christianity|Fundamentalism]]. (Palmer Domenico, Roy. ''[ Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Politics]''. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2006. ISBN 0313323623).</ref> terrorists, part of whose ideology included Roman Catholic [[w:Clerical fascism|Clericalist Fundamentalism]], kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]];<ref group="note">According to the [[w:Simon Wiesenthal Center|Simon Wiesenthal Center]] (citing the ''[[w:Encyclopedia of the Holocaust|Encyclopedia of the Holocaust]]''). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum states that "Ustaša units, often encouraged by Catholic clergy, carried out a program of compulsory conversion of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism; resistance often resulted in murder. Some Serbs, particularly members of the elite, were not even offered the option of conversion to avoid being killed." (''[ Holocaust Era in Croatia 1941-1945 JASENOVAC: History: II Targeted Populations].'' [ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum]). The late Bishop [[Nikolai Velimirovic|Nikolai (Velimirovich)]] inscribed into the Church calendar by his own hand the following notation for the date August 31 (O.S.): ''"The 700,000 who suffered for the Orthodox faith at the hands of the Roman crusaders and Ustasi during the time of the Second World War. These are the New Serbian Martyrs."''</ref> the Orthodox in Croatia were forced to wear the Cyrillic letter "P" for Provoslavets, or Orthodox, like the Jews who were forced to wear the Star of David during World War II; <ref name="Ivanov"/> martyrdom of Bp. [[Sava of Gornji Karlovac]], and Fr. [[Djordje Bogic]].
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units<ref>-----. ''[ Kharkov pensioners break a memorial desk to the SS spiritual guide].'' Interfax-Religion. 25 June 2008, 16:30.</ref><ref>-----. ''[ Yushchenko decorates Cardinal Husar with the highest Ukrainian award].'' Interfax-Religion. 27 February 2008, 15:03</ref><ref group="note">[[w:14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Ukrainian)|SS-Galicia division]] (Galizien/Galichina) and the Wehrmacht [[w:Nachtigall Battalion|Nachtigall battalion]].</ref> that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA; zenith of the [[w:Papist|Papist]]<ref group="note">'''Papist''' is a term, usually regarded as a disparaging or an anti-Catholic slur, referring to the Roman Catholic Church, its teaching, practices or adherents. It was coined during the English Reformation to denote a Christian whose loyalties were to the Pope, rather than to the Church of England. Over time, however, it came to mean one who supported [[w:Papal supremacy|Papal authority over all Christians]]. A similar term, "papalism", is sometimes used.</ref> persecution in Poland against Orthodox faithful in the region of Helm and Podlaskia - [ Holy Poles martyred by the Papists].
*1946 Metr. John of Kiev received Fr. [[Gabriel Kostelnik]] and twelve other priests from the [[Unia]] to Orthodoxy; state-sponsored synod held in Lviv Ukraine dissolves the Union of Brest-Litovsk and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, with Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia; Croatian Roman Catholic Abp. of Zagreb [[w:Aloysius Stepinac|Aloysius Stepinac]] is tried and found guilty of collaboration with the fascist Ustaše movement and complicity in allowing the forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism;<ref>Dr. [[w:Carl Kosta Savich|Carl Savich]] ([[w:Juris Doctor|J.D.]]). ''[ Another Side of the Pope: John Paul II’s Balkan Legacy].'' April 9, 2005.</ref><ref group="note" name="STEPINAC">"After World War II, Stepinac was arrested by the Communist regime and tried and convicted for his complicity in war crimes and mass murder. Of course, this trial is dismissed by neo-Ustasha propaganda and the official history as a Communist show trial meant to discredit Roman Catholicism. Stepinac served 5 years in prison as a convicted war criminal for complicity in genocide. He died in 1960 under house arrest. The theory of [[w:Command responsibility|command responsibility]] cited today by the Hague and international war crimes law experts was employed in the postwar trial of Archbishop Stepinac. He was found guilty according to this theory. A 1947 publication, ''The Trial of Stepinac'', relates the findings of the Yugoslav War Crimes Commission." (Dr. [[w:Carl Kosta Savich|Carl Savich]] ([[w:Juris Doctor|J.D.]]). ''[ Another Side of the Pope: John Paul II’s Balkan Legacy].'' April 9, 2005.)<br>See also: Dr. Srdja Trifkovic. ''[ Shades of Grey: The Record of Archbishop Stepinac].'' ''''''. June 8th, 2011.</ref>
*1947 Death of [[Alexis (Kabaliuk) of Carpathia|Alexei Kabalyiuk]], Apostle of Carpatho-Russia, who played a major role in reviving Orthodoxy in Transcarpathia in the early 20th century.
*1948 Martyrdom of Carpatho-Russian priest Protopresbyter [[Gabriel Kostelnik]].
*1949 Papal [[w:Decree against Communism|Decree against Communism]] by [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]] excommunicates all Catholics collaborating in communist organizations.
*1950 Declaration of Bodily Assumption of Mary as dogma.
*1952 Ecumenical Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras]] officially visited, for the first time in the last one thousand years, the Papal representative in [[Constantinople]], who returned the visit.<ref name="NICON"/>
*1958 Pope John XXIII and Ecumenical Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras]] exchanged formal letters calling for peace among the Christian churches.<ref name="NICON"/>
*1962 The secretive [[w:Metz Accord|Metz Accord]] is made between the Holy See and the U.S.S.R. (attended by Metr. [[w:Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad|Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad]]) at Metz, France, on 13 August 1962, renewing the previous pacts of 1942 and 1944 concerning the [[w:Ostpolitik|Vatican's Ostpolitik]], by which Eastern Orthodox participation in the Second Vatican Council was authorized in exchange for a non-condemnation of atheistic communism during the conciliar assemblies.<ref>Chiron, Yves. ''Paul VI: Le pape écartelé.'' Perrin, Paris, 1993. ISBN 226200952X pp.186,246.</ref><ref>Interview with Paul-Joseph Schmitt, Archbishop of Metz, in Le Lorrain, 9 March 1963.</ref>
*1962-1965 Vatican II institutes major reforms, especially liturgical, into Roman Catholic Church; Patr. [[w:Maximos IV Sayegh|Maximos IV Sayegh]] of the [[w:Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite Greek Catholic Church]] urged reconciliation between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, spoke forcefully against the [[Latinization]] of the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]], and championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity, winning a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the Ec. Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras I]].
*1963 Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]] announced the relaxation of the Roman Catholic ban on cremation in a confidential letter to bishops and issued his Instruction on 5 July, 1963.<ref>Douglas James Davies, Lewis H. Mates. ''[ Encyclopedia of Cremation].'' Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005. p.141.</ref>

==Era of Dialogue==
*1964 Mutual lifting of excommunications by Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras I]] and Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]].
*1965 The [[w:North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] is founded, meeting twice yearly; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' is officially abolished; Professor John Karmiris wrote about the Vatican’s plan to promote the union of the Orthodox and [[w:Papist|Papist]], stating: ''"Pope [[Paul VI]] and his circle of Papist theologians worked out a well-researched and broad program of Rome-centered [[Ecumenism]], in agreement with Latin [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|Ecclesiology]]."''<ref name=PIRAEISandDRYINOUPOLIS35>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 35.
:* citing: {{el icon}} ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ ΚΑΡΜΙΡΗΣ, ''Ὀρθοδοξία καί Ρωμαιοκαθολικισμός,'' vol. ΙΙ, Ἀθήναι 1965, p. 170.</ref><ref group="note">"Fr. [[John S. Romanides|John Romanidis]], of blessed memory, revealed that a Papist “bishop” had confided to him that, according to the Vatican’s plan, the union would not happen from the top, that is to say, from the bishops, the theologians and the dialogues, but rather from the so-called grassroots [[ecumenism]], that is to say, through the mutual association between the two sides and the gradual implementation of sacramental intercommunion (intercommunio), which is already being put into effect by Rome and the Orthodox Ecumenists."
:* <small>{{el icon}} ΑΡΧΙΜ. ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ ΚΑΨΑΝΗΣ, ''Ἡ κρίσις Θεολογίας καί Οἰκουμενισμοῦ ἐν Η.Π.Α.'', Ἀθήναι 1968, pp. 17-20.</ref>
*1966 Translation of the sacred [[relics]] of the Holy [[Apostle Titus]] of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox [[Archdiocese of Crete]].<ref>[ Ἀνακομιδὴ Τιμίων Λειψάνων Ἁγίου Ἀποστόλου Τίτου]. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref>
*1966-67 Pope Paul VI continued John XXIII's policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders in order to reduce persecutions against local Christians ([[w:Ostpolitik|Ostpolitik]] policy), receiving Foreign Minister [[w:Andrei Gromyko|Andrei Gromyko]] and USSR President [[w:Nikolai Podgorny|Nikolai Podgorny]]; however while the Soviet officials considered themselves calling on the pope as the head of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City State]], the Vatican announced the visit as made to the Holy Father as supreme pastor of the [[w:Holy See|Holy See]].<ref>Francis X. Murphy. ''Vatican Politics: Structure and Function.'' '''World Politics'''. Vol.26, No.4 (July 1974). p.554.</ref>
*1968 The Pope removed from the Calendar of Saints the Great-Martyr St. [[George the Trophy-bearer]], as well as erasing thirty other Saints with him, including Saint [[Nicholas of Myra|Nicholas]], Saint [[Christopher of Lycia|Christopher]], Saint [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]], and Saint [[Catherine of Alexandria|Catherine]], being some of the chief Saints of [[Orthodox Church|Orthodoxy]].<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 11.</ref> visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; the [[w:Centro Pro Unione|Centro Pro Unione]] center is founded by the [[w:Society of the Atonement|Society of the Atonement]] (Graymoor Friars and Sisters) as an ecumenical research and action center;
*1969 The new Roman Missal ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani'' or ''[[w:General Instruction of the Roman Missal|General Instruction of the Roman Missal]] (GIRM)'' is issued, indicating a preference for the liturgical orientation in which the priest celebrates the Liturgy "[[w:Versus populum|Versus Populum]]" ("towards the people"), rather than "[[w:Ad orientem|Ad Orientem]]" ("towards the east"), becoming the new pattern worldwide in Roman Catholic parishes.<ref group="note">According to Fr. Uwe Michael Lang:<br>
:<small>"The most important directive is found in paragraph 262 of the ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani,'' the General Instruction of the new Roman Missal, issued in 1969. That says, 'It is better for the main altar to be constructed away from the wall so that one can easily walk around the altar and celebrate facing the people (''versus populum'').' The General Instruction of the Missal issued in 2002 retained this text unaltered except for the addition of the subordinate clause, 'which is desirable wherever possible'. This was taken in many quarters as a hardening of the 1969 text to mean that there was now a general obligation to set up altars facing the people 'wherever possible'. This interpretation, however, was rejected by the [[w:Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments|Congregation for Divine Worship]] on 25 September 2000, when it declared that the word '' 'expedit' '' ('is desirable') did not imply an obligation but only made a suggestion."</small><br>
(Fr. Uwe Michael Lang. ''[ Turning Towards the Lord: Orientation in Liturgical Prayer].'' Ignatius Press, 2004. pp.9-10,25-26.)</ref><ref group="note">According to Pope [[Benedict XVI]]:<br>
:<small>"...The liturgical renewal in our own century took up this alleged model and developed from it a new idea for the form of the liturgy. The Eucharist - so it was said - had to be celebrated ''versus populum'' (toward the people). The altar - as can be seen in the normative model of St. Peter's - had to be positioned in such a way that priest and people looked at each other and formed together the circle of the celebrating community. This alone - so it was said - was compatible with the meaning of the Christian liturgy, with the requirement of active participation. This alone conformed to the primordial model of the Last Supper. These arguments seemed in the end so persuasive that after the Council [Vatican II] (which says nothing about "turning toward the people") new altars were set up everywhere, and today celebration ''versus populum'' really does look like the characteristic fruit of Vatican II's liturgical renewal."</small><br>
(Pope [[Benedict XVI]]. ''[ The Spirit of the Liturgy].'' Transl. John Saward. Ignatius Press, 2000. p.77.)</ref>
*1974 The Venerable [[Justin Popovich|Justin Popović]] wrote ''"The Orthodox Church and Ecumenism"'', noting that: ''"Ecumenism is a common name for the false Christianities of the false churches of Western Europe. Within it is found the heart of European Humanism with [[w:Papist|Papism]] as its head. All of these false Christianities and false churches are nothing other than one heresy next to the other. Their common evangelical name is pan-heresy."''<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 29.</ref>
*1978 Through the efforts of Metr. [[Panteleimon (Chrysofakis) of Thessalonica]], the sacred relics St. [[David of Thessalonica]] were triumphantly returned to Thessaloniki from Milan, Italy, after having been taken by Crusaders in 1236 AD.
*1979 [[w:Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church|Joint Commission of Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches for Theological Dialogue]] established.
*1980 Extraordinary [ Joint Conference of the Sacred Community of Mount Athos], April 9-22, resolved publicly to state the opinion of the Athonite fathers on the subject of dialogue with the heterodox;<ref group="note">"..."Orthodoxy is not one of the churches, but The Church herself. She has preserved precisely and authentically the teaching of [[Jesus Christ|Christ]] in its pristine splendor and in all its purity. Over and above a simple, unbroken historical continuity and consistency there exists in her a spiritual and ontological authen­ticity. The same Faith, the same Spirit, the same life. It is this which constitutes the distinguishing feature of Orthodoxy and which justi­fies her claim that she is and remains The Church" (''Episkepsis'', #227, March 15, 1980)...From the Orthodox point of view there is no justification for Optimism in regard to the dialogue, and for this reason no haste should be exhibited concerning it. The Roman Catholics are pressing the dialogue, hoping to strengthen themselves by annexing Orthodoxy to themselves, for they are confronted by very powerful internal disturbances and crises, as is well known. The number of former Ro­man Catholics who have converted to Orthodoxy also disturbs them. But Orthodoxy has no reason to hasten towards dialogue since the papists remain so obdurate and immovable as regards infallibility, uniatism, and the rest of their pernicious teachings. Hastening the dialogue under such conditions is equivalent to spiri­tual suicide for the Orthodox." (''[ The Announcement of the Joint Conference of the Abbots of Mount Athos]. April 9-22, 1980.)</ref> [[w:Greece – Holy See relations|Greece and the Vatican City State]] formally established diplomatic relations; Pope [[John Paul II]] called the first officially recognized synod of the [[Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church]] (UGCC), presided over by controversial wartime Metr. (now Cardinal) Josyf Slipyj.<ref>''[ Slipy, Yosyf].'' '''Encyclopedia of Ukraine''', Vol. 4, 1993.</ref>
*1982 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes in Munich first official common document, ''"The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in Light of the Mystery of the Holy Trinity."''
*1984 Martyrdom of Bp. [[Paul (de Ballester-Convallier) of Nazianzus]] in Mexico.
*1985 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope [[Benedict XVI]]) issues ''[ The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the State of the Church],'' where he caricatures all [[Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox Churches]] as doctrinally "static" and "petrified as it were."<ref group="note">'We have already referred indirectly to the Eastern Orthodox Churches. What are relations like with them? "Contacts with them are only superficially easier; in reality we are faced with grave problems. These Churches have an authentic doctrine, but it is static, petrified as it were. They remain faithful to the tradition of the first Christian millenium, but they reject later developments on the grounds that Catholics decided upon these developments without them. For them, questions of faith can only be decided by a 'really ecumenical' council, i.e., one which includes all Christians. Therefore they regard as invalid what Catholics have declared since the split..."' (Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger with Vittorio Messori. ''[ The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the State of the Church].'' Ignatius Press, 1985. pp.161-162.)</ref>
*1987 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Bari issues common document ''"Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church."''
*1988 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Valamo publishes common document ''"The Sacrament of Order in the Sacramental Structure of the Church;"'' Pope [[John Paul II]] addressed the European Parliament urging unity with the East.<ref>William D. Montalbano. ''[ Ulster's Paisley Disrupts Talks: Pope Urges W. Europeans to Seek Unity With East].'' LA Times. October 12, 1988.</ref><ref group="note">" the Pope began to speak, the Rev. Ian Paisley, the hard-line Protestant clergyman and a member of Parliament from Northern Ireland, rose to heckle him. ''"I renounce you as the anti-Christ! I renounce you and all your cults and creeds!"'' Paisley shouted from the rear of the chamber, quoting Thomas Cranmer, a pope-hating [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] who was burned at the stake in 1556." (William D. Montalbano. ''[ Ulster's Paisley Disrupts Talks: Pope Urges W. Europeans to Seek Unity With East].'' LA Times. October 12, 1988.)</ref>
*1989 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope [[Benedict XVI]]) publishes "''[ Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation],''" where he rehearses historical [[Heresy|heretical]] arguments against [[hesychasm]] (in sections 26-28), caricaturing [[hesychasm]] as a "psychological-corporal method" with numerous inherent dangers.
*1990 The Soviet Union and Holy See established official relations 15 March 1990.
*1993 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document ''"Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion"'' (the "[[Balamand document]]"); the Balamand Document declared that what has been called "uniatism" ''"can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking".''<ref>Orthodox Christian Information Center. ''[ Full Text of the Balamand Statement].'' Originally published in: '''Eastern Churches Journal''', Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 17-27. Section 12.</ref>
*1995 Pope [[John Paul II]] issues Apostolic Letter ''[ Orientale Lumen]'' ("Light from the East") on May 2, encouraging East-West union; Pope John Paul II issues Encyclical ''[ Ut Unum Sint]'' ("That they may be one") on May 25, reiterating that unity of these two [[w:Sui iuris|sui juris]] churches is essential (as well as further dialogue with the Protestant churches), showing that the [[Roman Catholic Church]] is officially moved to unity.
*1997 Beginning of the annual series of [ Orientale Lumen Conferences], a grassroots movement among lay persons and clergy providing a common forum for Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics to meet and learn about eachother's traditions; "Orientale Lumen I" is held in Washington D.C.
*1998 Pope John Paul II beatified Zagreb's controversial wartime Abp. and later Cardinal [[w:Aloysius Stepinac|Aloysius Stepinac]].<ref>BBC News. ''[ Controversial cardinal beatified].'' Saturday, October 3, 1998 Published at 17:53 GMT 18:53 UK.</ref><ref>Prof. Arthur Noble. ''[ Pope beatifies a Mass Murderer – after canonising another].'' European Institute of Protestant Studies. 1/8/1999.</ref><ref group="note" name="STEPINAC"/>
*2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, but is suspended after an acrimonious meeting, in particular due to the issues of [[w:Primacy of the Roman Pontiff|papal primacy]] and the role of [[Eastern Catholic Churches]], with the Commission not resuming again for six years;<ref>Jonathan Luxmoore. ''"Orthodox-Catholic relations at an impasse after Baltimore talks: 'Bitter differences' lead to dead-end, Polish ecumenist says."'' Ecumenical News International. (Distributed as Note #6146 by PCUSA NEWS on 2000-AUG-9).</ref> in view of the celebration of the Roman Catholic [[w:Great Jubilee|Great Jubilee]] year (''Jubilaeum''), on Sunday March 12 in his ''"[ Day of Pardon]"'' homily Pope [[John Paul II]] formally asked forgiveness for the various sins committed by the Roman Catholic Church over the last two millennia.<ref>''[ Pope apologises for church sins].'' BBC News. Sunday, 12 March, 2000, 19:48 GMT.</ref><ref group="note">"...we cannot fail to recognize the infidelities to the Gospel committed by some of our brethren, especially during the second millennium. Let us ask pardon for the divisions which have occurred among Christians, for the violence some have used in the service of the truth and for the distrustful and hostile attitudes sometimes taken towards the followers of other religions." (''HOMILY OF THE HOLY FATHER. "[ DAY OF PARDON]".'' Sunday, 12 March 2000).</ref>
*2001 Pope [[John Paul II]] apologizes to Orthodox for [[Fourth Crusade]], on the first trip to Greece by a Pope since AD 710;<ref group="note">"...Some memories are especially painful, and some events of the distant past have left deep wounds in the minds and hearts of people to this day. I am thinking of the disastrous sack of the imperial city of Constantinople, which was for so long the bastion of Christianity in the East. It is tragic that the assailants, who had set out to secure free access for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their own brothers in the faith. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret. How can we fail to see here the mysterium iniquitatis at work in the human heart? To God alone belongs judgement, and therefore we entrust the heavy burden of the past to his endless mercy, imploring him to heal the wounds which still cause suffering to the spirit of the Greek people. Together we must work for this healing if the Europe now emerging is to be true to its identity, which is inseparable from the [[w:Christian humanism|Christian humanism]] shared by East and West." (''[ ADDRESS OF JOHN PAUL II TO HIS BEATITUDE CHRISTODOULOS, ARCHBISHOP OF ATHENS AND PRIMATE OF GREECE].'' Friday, 4 May 2001.)</ref> a day earlier some 1,000 Orthodox conservatives took to the streets to denounce his visit; Pope John Paul II goes on a controversial visit to Ukraine during which he was fiercely opposed by that country's largest Orthodox Church, where he beatified 28 [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Greek Catholics]], including 27 martyrs, most of whom were killed by the Soviet secret police.<ref>-----. ''[ Pope home from disputed Ukraine tour].'' June 27, 2001 Posted: 10:00 PM EDT (0200 GMT).</ref>
*2002 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] and Pope [[John Paul II]] co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; problem of Vatican [[proselytism]] is highlighted in its decision to upgrade its four [[w:Apostolic Administrator|Apostolic Administrations]] in Moscow, Saratov, Novosibirsk and Irkutsk to fully fledged Diocese status, and elevate the former Apostolic Administrator, Msgr. [[w:Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz (archbishop)|Tadeusz Kondrusiwicz]], to Metr.-Abp. of Moscow, drawing a storm of protest from Patr. [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] and the Holy Synod of Russia who described the move as "unfriendly" claiming the [[Roman Catholic Church]] saw Russia as a field for missionary activity.<ref>
Greg Watts. ''[ Russia and Rome Rethink Relations].'' [[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]. February 14, 2004.</ref><ref group="note">In his first interview with Western journalists since 2002, Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] reiterated Orthodox complaints against Catholics. "Unfortunately relations are not at their best today because the [[proselytism|proselytising]] activity of the [[Roman Catholic Church]] is being carried out in both Russia and in CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries. Many missionary orders work in Russia today, especially in the shelters and orphanages, where children who have been [[Baptism|baptised]] in Orthodoxy are being converted to Catholicism." Deep wounds have been inflicted by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate Catholics]] in the western area of Ukraine, he added. (Greg Watts. ''[ Russia and Rome Rethink Relations].'' [[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]. February 14, 2004.)</ref><ref group="note">"Orthodox leaders have always complained bitterly about the various Eastern Rite churches, which follow many Orthodox traditions but are loyal to the Vatican. They are widely perceived as Vatican infiltrators trying [[Proselytism|to lure away Orthodox followers]] and erode Orthodox churches." (Brian Murphy. ''Tale of two Europes: Political unity advances while ancient religious rifts persist.'' [[w:Times-Colonist|Times-Colonist]]. January 25, 2003. p.25.)</ref>
*2003 Holy Synod of the [[Church of Poland]] canonizes the [ Holy Polish Saints and Martyrs] of the eparchy of Helm and Podlaskia, martyred by the [[w:Papist|Papists]] during the zenith of the persecutions in 1944.<ref group="note">"It is decided that the assembly of the Holy Martyrs and Confessors of the eparchy of Helm and Podlaska shall be on the first Sunday of the month of June. They are ranked in the chorus of the Saints:<small>
* a) [ Protopresbyter Basil] (martyred in the village of Teratin on the 4th May 1945).
* b) [ Protopriest Paul Svaiko and his matushka Joanna] (martyred at the village of Graboviets on the 28th August 1943).
* c) Priest [ Nicholas Holts] (martyred at Novosiolski on 2nd April 1944).
* d) Priest [ Leon Corobtsuk] (martyred at Laskof on 10th May 1944).
* e) Priest [ Peter Ochrisko] (martyred at Tsartoviets on 10th April 1944).
* f) Priest Sergius Zahartsuk (martyred at Nabruz on 6th May 1943).
* g) Monk [ Ignatius] (martyred at the Monastery of Saint Onouphrios at Giobletsna on 10 Aug 1942)."</small></ref>
*2004 Return of relics of Ss. [[John Chrysostom]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]] to Constantinople from Rome (after having been stolen by Crusaders); the [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast I] conference is held in Istanbul, May 10-13, 2004;<ref group="note">This was the 11th of a series of Orientale Lumen Conferences, since they began in 1997. ''Orientale Lumen EuroEast I'' was jointly announced by the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople]], the [[w:Pontifical Oriental Institute|Pontifical Oriental Institute]], the [ Catholic and Orthodox Society of St. John Chrysostom], and [ Eastern Christian Publications]. The thematic focus of the 80 participants of [;col1 Orientale Lumen Euro-East I] was ''"Liturgy as the Foundation of Dialogue."'' The meeting transpired over the anniversary of the founding of Constantinople on May 11,330 A.D.</ref> the [ Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] is established at Paderborn (Germany), composed of 26 theologians, 13 Orthodox and 13 Roman Catholics, attempting to go through Church history chronologically to understand and analyze the development of the interrelationship between [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|primacy and synodality]] in terms of both theology and [[praxis]].<ref group="note">Since its foundation in 2004, the [ Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] has held annual meetings at: Paderborn (2004), Athens (2005), Chevetogne (2006), Belgrade (2007), Vienna (2008), Kiev (2009), and Magdeburg (2010).</ref>
*2005 Major controversy in Ukraine involving the almost exclusively western Ukraine-based [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Greek Catholic Church moving its administrative centre on from Lviv to Kiev, constructing a large cathedral there, and its plans to establish a patriarchate, criticized by the Orthodox [[Church of Ukraine]] and other Orthodox; in his first major policy statement as pope, Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issued [ an instruction] barring actively [[Homosexuality|gay]] priests from seminaries, the only exception being for those with a "transitory problem" that had been overcome at least three years prior to ordination to the diaconate.<ref>CONGREGATION FOR CATHOLIC EDUCATION. ''[ Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders].'' Rome, 4 November 2005, Memorial of St Charles Borromeo, Patron of Seminaries. Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski (Prefect).</ref><ref>IAN FISHER and LAURIE GOODSTEIN. ''[ New Vatican Rule Said to Bar Gays as New Priests].'' NY Times. September 22, 2005.</ref><ref>Peter Gould. ''[ Vatican fuels gay clergy debate].'' BBC News. Monday, 28 November 2005, 18:33 GMT.</ref><ref>''[ Less gay behavior in seminaries, Vatican says].'' MSNBC (Associated Press). 1/15/2009 2:26:40 PM ET.</ref><ref>PAUL VITELLO. ''[ Prospective Catholic Priests Face Sexuality Hurdles].'' NY Times. May 30, 2010.</ref>
*2006 Pope Benedict XVI drops title ''Patriarch of the West'';<ref>''"[ Communiqué concernant la suppression du titre «Patriarche d’Occident» dans l'Annuaire pontifical 2006]".'' Retrieved 2010-09-26.</ref><ref group="note">From 1863 until 2005, the ''Annuario Pontificio'' included also the title "Patriarch of the West". This title was first used by [[w:Pope Theodore I|Pope Theodore I]] in 642, and was only used occasionally. Indeed, it did not begin to appear in the pontifical yearbook until 1863. On 22 March 2006, the Vatican released a statement explaining this omission on the grounds of expressing a "historical and theological reality" and of "being useful to ecumenical dialogue". The title Patriarch of the West symbolized the pope's special relationship with, and jurisdiction over, the Latin Church—and the omission of the title neither symbolizes in any way a change in this relationship, nor distorts the relationship between the Holy See and the Eastern Churches, as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.</ref> Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from the common Assembly of the twenty Sacred Monasteries of [[Mount Athos]];<ref>''[ The Official Statement from Mt. Athos on the Pope's Visit to the Phanar].'' [[Karyes (Athos)|Karyae]], 30 December 2006.</ref> in Ephesus, during the 2006 visit of [[Benedict XVI]] to Turkey and to the [[Phanar]], he supported the [[Unia]], stating ''"according to him the best way to unity in the Church is that of [[Unia]]."''<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 34.</ref> Abp. [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens]] visits Vatican, the first head of the [[Church of Greece]] to visit the Vatican, reciprocating the Pope's visit to Greece in 2001, and signing a ''[ Joint Declaration on the importance of the Christian roots of Europe]'' and protecting fundamental human rights; the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox]] and [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] Churches confronted [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] at the conference ''"[ Giving a Soul to Europe]"'' (Vienna, May 3-5, 2006),<ref group="note">The conference was organized jointly by the [[w:Pontifical Council for Culture|Pontifical Council for Culture]] and the [ Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate].</ref> discussing the challenges facing Christianity, specifically materialism, consumerism, agnosticism, secularism and relativism, all based on liberal humanist ideology, constituting a real threat to Christianity today;<ref group="note">From the perspective of the Church [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] is defined as a religious philosophical worldview based on [[atheism]], [[w:Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]], [[evolution]], and [[w:Moral relativism|ethical relativism]], attempting to function as a civilized society with the total exclusion of [[God]] and His moral principles. At the conference Bishop [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Vienna|Hilarion Alfeyev]] called in most resolute terms for '''an institutionalized Orthodox-Catholic alliance''', without which, he said, it would not be possible to defend traditional values in Europe: ''"What we are witnessing is the final attack of militant secularism on the remains of Christian civilization in Europe."'' Note that at its 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress in 2002, the [[w:International Humanist and Ethical Union|International Humanist and Ethical Union]] (IHEU) published its ''"[[w:Amsterdam Declaration|Amsterdam Declaration]]",'' the defining statement of worldwide secular Humanism, embracing Humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, Ethical Culture, freethought and similar organisations worldwide.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] met with Bp. Agathangelos of Fanarion and Greek Orthodox Seminarians from the [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] theology college in Greece who were visiting Rome, urging them to confront the challenges that threaten the faith by working to unify all Christians.
*2007 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal [[w:Walter Kasper|Walter Kasper]] and Metr. [[John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]], agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union ("[ Ravenna Document]");<ref>Ruth Gledhill, Religion Correspondent and Paul Bompard in Rome. ''[ Vatican joins historic talks to end 950-year rift with Orthodox church].'' [[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]. November 16, 2007.</ref><ref>Ian Fisher. ''[ Vatican City: Catholic-Orthodox Accord on Papal Primacy].'' [[w:The New York Times|NY Times]]. November 15, 2007. A10.</ref> Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation ([[Church of Constantinople|EP]]); the Vatican issued a 16-page document prepared by the ''[[w:Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith|Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]]'', restating its belief that the Catholic Church is the only true church of Jesus Christ, also stating that although Orthodox churches are true churches, they are defective because they do not recognize the [[w:Papal supremacy|primacy of the Pope]];<ref>''[ Catholic Church only true church, Vatican says].'' CBC News. Tuesday, July 10, 2007.</ref> [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast II] conference, May, 2007 in Istanbul; the Vatican formally [ reconsiders doctrine of Limbo];<ref>''[ Catholic Church sees 'hope' for unbaptized babies].'' CBC News. Friday, April 20, 2007 | 4:16 PM ET.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issues the Apostolic Letter ''[[w:Summorum Pontificum|Summorum Pontificum]],''<ref>[ Latin text on the Holy See's website]. Published officially in ''[[w:Acta Apostolicae Sedis|Acta Apostolicae Sedis]]'' XCIX (2007), 777-781. Available also with an [ English translation in a parallel column].</ref> granting greater freedom to use the [[w:Tridentine Mass|Tridentine Mass]] in its 1962 form and for administering most of the [[sacraments]] in the form that they had before the liturgical reforms following the Second Vatican Council, being well received by supporters of the Tridentine Mass and Traditionalists.
*2009 Led by three senior archbishops, a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece published a manifesto, ''[ A Confession of Faith Against Ecumenism],'' pledging to resist all ecumenical ties with Roman Catholics and Protestants, amongst its signatories including six metropolitans,<ref group="note">Metr. [[Panteleimon (Lampadarios) of Antinoe]]; Metr. Seraphim (Stergioulis) of [[Metropolis of Kythira|Kythira]]; Metr. Kosmas (Papachristos) of [[Metropolis of Aitolia and Akarnania|Aitolia and Akarnania]]; Metr. [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus]]; Metr. Dr. [ Artemije (Radosavljevic)] of Raska and Prizren, Kosovo and Metohia; Bp. [[George (Schaefer) of Mayfield]], Abbott of the [[Hermitage of the Holy Cross (Wayne, West Virginia)]].</ref> as well as 49 archimandrites, 22 hieromonks, and 30 nuns and abbesses, as well as many other priests and church elders; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Paphos, Cyprus, 11th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' first-ever Russian Orthodox church is consecrated in Rome; Russia and the Holy See upgraded their diplomatic relations to full ambassadorial relations in 2009, following improvements in the working relationship between the Holy See and the Orthodox Patriarchate of Moscow;<ref>''[ Russia and the Vatican establish full diplomatic ties].'' BBC News. 20:59 GMT, Thursday, 3 December 2009.</ref> at the invitation of Cardinal Walter Kasper, Abp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk]] visited Pope [[Benedict XVI]] and several officials of the Roman Curia who have key roles in the Roman Catholic ecumenical dialogue;<ref>''[ Archbishop Hilarion shares with Pope his concern about Orthodox dioceses in Ukraine destroyed by the Uniates].'' Interfax-Religion. 21 September 2009, 13:19.</ref> the [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] issues ''"[ A Common Response]"'' to the Ravenna Document of 2007, identifying a number of criticisms.
*2010 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew]] firmly addressed the opponents of the Orthodox theological dialogues in the ''[ Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' signed by 12 Bishops in addition to the Ecumenical Patriarch;<ref group="note">"...These dialogues, together with every effort for peaceful and fraternal relations of the Orthodox Church with other Christians, are unfortunately challenged today in an unacceptably fanatical way – at least by the standards of a genuinely Orthodox ethos – by certain circles that exclusively claim for themselves the title of zealot and defender of Orthodoxy. As if all the Patriarchs and Sacred Synods of the Orthodox Churches throughout the world, who unanimously decided on and continue to support these dialogues, were not Orthodox. Yet, these opponents of every effort for the restoration of unity among Christians raise themselves above Episcopal Synods of the Church to the dangerous point of creating schisms within the Church...moreover, union is not decided by theological commissions but by Church Synods...Beloved children in the Lord, Orthodoxy has no need of either fanaticism or bigotry to protect itself. Whoever believes that Orthodoxy has the truth does not fear dialogue, because truth has never been endangered by dialogue..." (''[ Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' February 21, 2010.)</ref> first ever visit by a pope to Cyprus, as Pope Benedict went on a sensitive three-day day visit to the divided island; Cardinal Walter Kasper stated that there can be no full integration of eastern and western Europe without ecumenical dialogue and the contribution of the eastern European Orthodox churches; at the ''“[ Orthodox Constructions of the West]”'' conference at Fordham University (June 28-30), keynote speaker Fr. Robert F. Taft, (S.J) delivered the address ''"Perceptions and Realities in Orthodox-Catholic Relations Today,"'' calling on Catholic and Orthodox Churches to Restore Communion;<ref group="note">Eastern-rite Jesuit scholar Rev. Robert Taft made a similar appeal for union when he delivered the annual Kelly Lecture at the University of Toronto's St. Michael's College in 2000. (''Jesuit slams Catholic-Orthodox rift.'' [[w:Times-Colonist|Victoria Times Colonist]]. December 16, 2000. A12.)</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] proclaims the [[w:Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation|Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation]]; [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast III] conference, July 5-8, 2010 in Istanbul; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Vienna, Austria, 12th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] meets in Washington DC, issuing two statements: ''[ Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].,''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[ Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 2, 2010.</ref> and ''[ Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[ Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 1, 2010.</ref> Croatian Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar gives cherished relic of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] to the [[Church of Jerusalem|Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem]];<ref group="note">The mummified body of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] was taken from Jerusalem to Constantinople in the 13th century, and was apparently destined for Venice when a storm on the Adriatic Sea forced the ship off course toward what is now Croatia. The saint’s remains have been venerated in Zadar since that time. In 2007, during a pilgrimage to the [[Holy Land]], Archbishop Ivan Prendja of Zadar met with the Greek Orthodox Patriarch [[Theophilus III (Giannopoulos) of Jerusalem|Theophilus III of Jerusalem]], and agreed to provide a relic of St. Simeon to be venerated in an Orthodox monastery dedicated to the saint. Archbishop Prendja died in January of this year, but his successor, Archbishop Zelimir Puljic, carried out his promise in a ceremony in Zadak, turning over the relic to representatives of the Orthodox patriarchate. (''[ Croatian archdiocese gives cherished relic to Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem].'' October 13, 2010).</ref> over half a million Guatemalan Indians of the "Orthodox Catholic Church of Guatemala" (OCCG), a branch of the "[[w:Orthodox-Catholic Church of America|Orthodox-Catholic Church of America]]" (OCCA), are received in their entirety into the Ecumenical Patriarchate's [[Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Mexico, Central America, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean Islands|Holy Metropolis of Mexico (Central America)]];<ref>''[ PRESS RELEASE].'' '''General Secretariat for Pan-Orthodox Ministries'''. FROM THE OFFICE OF THE HOLY METROPOLIS, Mexico City, April 7th 2010.</ref><ref group="note">In announcing this exciting development, His Eminence Metropolitan [[Athenagoras (Aneste) of Mexico]] expressed his great pleasure in welcoming the OCCG which was received in its entirety, including their former clergy, seminarians, lay ministers, catechists and affiliated membership into the canonical family of the [[Orthodox Church]], under the guidance of [[Protosyngellos|Archiepiscopal Vicar]] [[Archimandrite]] Dr. [[Andrew (Vujisić) of Tralles]]. Following their official reception, the leaders of OCCG, Messrs. [[Andrew Girón]] and [[Michael Castellanos]] traveled to Mexico City where on the weekend of March 19-21, they were ordained to the Holy Priesthood, receiving the title of [[Archimandrite]]. The OCCG has an approximate membership of 527,000 faithful and catechumens, overwhelmingly indigenous, with 334 churches in Guatemala and southern Mexico, with 12 (formerly OCCG) clergymen and 14 seminarians, who are assisted in their pastoral ministry by 250 lay ministers and 380 catechists.</ref> renowned Swiss theologian and Patristics scholar Hieromonk [[Gabriel Bunge]] ([[w:Order of Saint Benedict|O.S.B.]]) is received into the [[Orthodox Church]].
*2011 The [[w:United States Conference of Catholic Bishops|United States Conference of Catholic Bishops]] (USCCB) releases a revised edition of the ''[[w:New American Bible Revised Edition|New American Bible]]'' which further departs from the authority of the [[Septuagint]], in favour of the later Masoretic text, most controversially in [[Isaiah|Isaias]] 7:14, revising the NAB from ''"the virgin shall be with child"'' to ''"a young woman shall be with child"'', essentially serving to undermine the doctrines of the Perpetual Virginity of the [[Theotokos]], and the Virginal Conception of [[Christ]];<ref>Alexandra Silver. ''[ Controversial Bible Revision: About That 'Virgin' Thing...].'' TIME NewsFeed. 2011-03-04.</ref><ref group="note">This single act assists, what appears to conscientious Orthodox Christians, as the further Protestantization of the Roman Church by ''progressive'' bishops and theologians.</ref> official introduction of the new English-language translation of the Roman Missal in most English-speaking countries, on the first Sunday of Advent (November 27, 2011), representing a translation that more faithfully tracks the original Latin.<ref>Sharon Otterman. ‘’[ New Translation of Catholic Mass Makes Its Debut].’’ NY Times. Sunday November 27, 2011.</ref><ref group="note">The [ International Commission for English in the Liturgy] prepared a new English translation of the Roman Missal, the completed form of which received the [ approval of the Holy See in April 2010]. Some of the revisions are:<br>
:* The [[Nicene Creed]] now starts with ''“I believe in one God”'' instead of ''“We believe in one God.”''<br>
:* Jesus is now ''“consubstantial with the Father”'' rather than ''“one in Being with the Father.”'' <br>
:* Communion begins with the words, ''“Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof,”'' instead of ''“Lord, I am not worthy to receive you.”''<br>
:* The response ''“And also with you,”'' is now rendered ''“And with your spirit.”''</ref>
*2012 The Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land (ACOHL) issues a directive stating that within two years (by 2015) all Eastern Catholics and the [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate in the Holy Land]] will officially adopt the Greek Orthodox Julian calendar date for the celebration of [[Pascha]].<ref>Christophe Lafontaine. ''[ Latin Patriarchate will celebrate Easter 2013 according to the Julian Calendar].'' Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Oct 23, 2012.</ref><ref>Judith Sudilovsky. ''[ Tale of two Easters: Holy Land Catholics, Orthodox to celebrate as one].'' Catholic News Service. Feb-7-2013.</ref><ref group="note">For Easter 2015 and the following years, a decree formulated by the ACOHL will be submitted to the Holy See for approval. This decree is to state that all the Catholic Churches of the Holy Land will permanently adopt the Julian calendar for the celebration of Easter with the consequential adjustment of the liturgical calendar for the beginning of Lent and the feast of Pentecost. Meanwhile, the Bishops of the Catholic Churches of the Holy Land have the option of starting the implementation in 2013. This is the case with the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.</ref>
*2014 Metropolitans [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus]] and [[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis]], of the [[Church of Greece]], write a ''[ lengthy epistle]'' sent to to [[Pope]] Francis on April 10, 2014, concerning his past, the abysmal State of Papism, and a plea to return to Holy Orthodoxy.<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. 87 pp.</ref><ref>{{el icon}} ὁ Δρυϊνουπόλεως, Πωγωνιανῆς καί Κονίτσης ΑΝΔΡΕΑΣ, καί ὁ Πειραιῶς ΣΕΡΑΦΕΙΜ. ''[ Επιστολή προς τον Πάπα].'' ΑΥΤΟΚΕΦΑΛΟΣ ΟΡΘΟΔΟΞΟΣ ΚΑΘΟΛΙΚΗ ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ - (ΙΕΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ ΔΡΥΪΝΟΥΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΠΩΓΩΝΙΑΝΗΣ & ΚΟΝΙΤΣΗΣ καί ΙΕΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΩΣ). Tῇ 10ῃ Ἀπριλίου 2014. 121 pp.</ref>

==See also==
*[[Church of Rome]]
*[[Roman Catholic Church]]
*[[Anti-Orthodox#Roman_Catholic_Polemics|Anti-Orthodox - Roman Catholic Polemics]]

*[[Great Schism]]
*[[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology]]

*[[Orthodox - Old Catholic Dialogue]]
*[[Timeline of Church History]]
*[[Timeline of Schisms]]

==External Links==
*[[w:Roman Catholic–Eastern Orthodox theological differences|Roman Catholic–Eastern Orthodox theological differences]]
*[[w:Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church|Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church]]
*[[w:North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]
*[[w:Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity|Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity]]
*[[w:Pontifical Oriental Institute|Pontifical Oriental Institute]] (The premier center for the study of Eastern Christianity in Rome, Italy).
*[[w:Catholic Church and ecumenism|Catholic Church and ecumenism]]
*[[w:Catholic–Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965|Catholic–Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965]]
*[[w:Declaration of Ravenna|Declaration of Ravenna]] (2007)
*[[w:Catholic Church|Roman Catholic Church]]
*[[w:Latin Rite|Latin Church]]
*[[w:Latin liturgical rites|Latin liturgical rites]]
*[[w:Liturgical Movement|Liturgical Movement]]
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*[[w:Politics of Vatican City|Politics of Vatican City]]
*[[w:Economy of Vatican City|Economy of Vatican City]]
*[[w:Holy See – Soviet Union relations|Holy See – Soviet Union relations]]
*[[w:Pope Benedict XV and Russia|Pope Benedict XV and Russia]]
*[[w:Pope Pius XII and Russia|Pope Pius XII and Russia]]
*[[w:Holy See – Russia relations|Holy See – Russia relations]]
*[[w:Greece – Holy See relations|Greece – Holy See relations]]
*[[w:Holy See – Romania relations|Holy See – Romania relations]]
*[[w:Protos (monastic office)|Protos]]
*[[w:Full communion|Full communion]]
*[[w:Communion of Saints|Communion of the Saints]]
*[[w:Greek East and Latin West|Greek East and Latin West]]

<references group="note" />


==Further reading==
* [[Vladimir Guettée|Abbé Guettée]] (D.D.). ''[ The Papacy: Its Historic Origin and Primitve Relations with the Eastern Churches].'' Transl. from the French, with an introduction by [[w:Arthur Cleveland Coxe|Arthur Cleveland Coxe]] (Bp. of Western NY). New York; London: S Low, Son & Co.. 1867. 383 pp. ''(Also online [ here])''
* Andrew J. Ekonomou. ''[ Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern Influences on Rome and the Papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590-752].'' Lexington Books, 2007. 347 pp.
* Rev. Dr. [[Andrew Louth]]. ''[ Greek East and Latin West: The Church, AD 681-1071]''. '''The Church in History Vol. III'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. 382pp.
* Aristeides Papadakis, (with John Meyendorff). ''The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071-1453 A.D.'' '''The Church in History Vol. IV'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1994.
* Bishop of Nazianzus, [[Paul (de Ballester-Convallier) of Nazianzus|Paul de Ballester]]. ''[ My Exodus From Roman Catholicism].'' Transl. from Greek by Constantine Zalalas. Bethlehem, PA: St. Nicodemos Publications. 2011. 144pp. ISBN 0-9831396-0-7
* Deno John Geanakoplos. ''[ Byzantine East and Latin West: Two worlds of Christendom in Middle Ages and Renaissance: Studies in Ecclesiastical and Cultural History].'' Oxford, [[w:Basil Blackwell|B. Blackwell]], 1961. 206pp.
* Dr. Clark Carlton. ''[ The Truth: What Every Roman Catholic Should Know about the Orthodox Church].'' Regina Orthodox Press, 2007. 268pp.
* Fr. Alexey Young. ''The Rush to Embrace.'' Nikodemos Orthodox Publication Society. 1996. 95pp.
* Fr. Dan Suciu. ''[ Orthodoxy: Catholicism Without Additions, Protestantism Without Subtractions].'' 36pp.
* Fr. [[John Meyendorff]]. ''[ The Primacy of Peter: Essays in Ecclesiology and the Early Church].'' [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St Vladimir's Seminary Press]], 1992. 182pp.
* Fr. John Meyendorff. ''[ Rome, Constantinople, Moscow: Historical and Theological Studies].'' [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St Vladimir's Seminary Press]], 1996. 201pp.
* Fr. [[w:John H. Erickson|John H. Erickson]] and John Borelli (Eds.). ''[ The Quest for Unity: Orthodox and Catholics in Dialogue: Documents of the Joint International Commission and Official Dialogues in the United States, 1965-1995].'' [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St Vladimir's Seminary Press]] (SVS) and United States Catholic Conference (USCC), 1996. 251pp.
* Fr. [[w:Laurent Cleenewerck|Laurent Cleenewerck]]. ''[ His Broken Body: Understanding and Healing the Schism Between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches].'' [[w:EUCLID (Euclid University)|Euclid University]] Press, 2008. 448pp.
* Irene Economides. ''[ Differences Between the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholicism].'' 16th Ed. Athens: Nektarios D. Panagopoulos, 2004. 112pp.
* Michael Whelton. ''[ Popes and Patriarchs: An Orthodox Perspective on Roman Catholic Claims].'' Conciliar Press, 2006. 177pp.
* Michael Whelton. ''[ Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition: Rome's Claims of Papal Supremacy in the Light of Orthodox Christian Teaching].'' Regina Orthodox Press, 2002. 215pp.
* [[Philip Sherrard]]. ''[ Church, Papacy, and Schism: A Theological Enquiry].'' Denise Harvey, 1978. 3rd. Ed., 2009. 134pp.
* Philip Sherrard. ''[ The Greek East and the Latin West: A Study in the Christian Tradition].'' Oxford University Press, 1959. Updated Ed., Denise Harvey, 2002. 222pp.
* Prof. Jοhn Ν. Karmiris. ''[ The Schism of the Roman Church].'' Transl. by Z. Xintaras. '''Theologia Review'''. Athens 1950, pp.400-587.
* Prof. [ Tia M. Kolbaba]. ''[ The Byzantine Lists: Errors of the Latins].'' 1st Ed. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. 248pp.
:* Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America]] (1949-58). ''[ The Schism of the Roman Catholic Church from the Eastern Orthodox: 1054-1954].'' Orthodox Research Institute. 1954.
:* [[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Alexei Khomyakov]]. ''[ Essay on the Unity of the Church: The Church is One].'' In: W.J. Birkbeck, (Ed.). '''[ Russia and the English Church During the Last Fifty Years].''' Volume I. London: Rivington, Percival & Co. 1895. (''Correspondence between [[w:William Palmer (theologian)|William Palmer]] and M. Khomiakoff, in the Years 1844-1854'')
:* Archim. [[Augustinos (Kantiotes) of Florina|Augustinos Kantiotes]]. ''[ WHAT IS PAPISM?]'' 1956.
:* Bp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk|Hilarion (Alfeyev)]]. ''[ Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev: Prospects of Orthodox-Catholic Relations].'' '''Orthodox Europe (DECR-MP)'''. Paper delivered on 7 October 2002 at the University of St Thomas (St Paul, Minessota, USA); repeated on 9 October 2002 at the Catholic University of America (Washington D.C).
:* Dcn. Herman Ivanov-Treenadzaty. ''[ The Vatican and Russia].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.XL, No.2 [March-April 1990], pp. 8-24. ''
:* Deno J. Geanakoplos. ''The Council of Florence (1438-1439) and the Problem of Union between the Greek and Latin Churches.'' '''Church History'''. Vol.24, No.4. Dec., 1955. pp.324-346.
:* Dr. Srdja Trifkovic. ''[ Shades of Grey: The Record of Archbishop Stepinac].'' ''''''. June 8th, 2011.
:* Fr. [[George Dragas]]. ''[ The Manner of Reception of Roman Catholic Converts into the Orthodox Church with Special Reference to the Decisions of the Synods of 1484 (Constantinople), 1755 (Constantinople), and 1667 (Moscow)].'' Prepared for and read at the [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|Orthodox/Roman Catholic Dialogue (USA)]] in 1998.
:* Fr. Dr. Michael Azkoul. ''[ WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORTHODOXY AND ROMAN CATHOLICISM?]'' The Orthodox Christian Witness, Vol. XXVII (48), Vol. XXVIII (6) and (8), 1994.
:* Fr. Dr. [ Radu Bordeianu]. ''"[ Orthodox-Catholic Dialogue: Retrieving Eucharistic Ecclesiology]."'' '''Journal of Ecumenical Studies'''. 44.2 (2009): pp.239+.
:* Hierodeacon [[Paul (de Ballester-Convallier) of Nazianzus|Paul de Ballester-Convallier]]. ''[ Why I abandoned Papism].'' '''Kivotos''' magazine. July 1953, pp.285-291; December 1953 pp.483-485.
::''(Scroll down past the Greek section to get to the English version. Bishop Paul's article which explains why and how he was converted to Orthodoxy from Roman Catholicism. )''
:* John L. Boojamra. ''[[Athanasius I of Constantinople|Athanasios of Constantinople]]: A Study of Byzantine Reactions to Latin Religious Infiltration.''''' Church History'''. Vol.48, No.1. Mar., 1979. pp.27-48.
:* Joseph L. Wieczynski. ''[[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Khomyakov]]'s Critique of Western Christianity.'' '''Church History.''' Vol.38, No.3, Sep., 1969. pp.291-299.
:* Joachim Wertz. ''[ On the Serbian Orthodox New Martyrs of the Second World War: A Brief Historical Background].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.33, No.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1983). pp.15-22.
:* Metr. [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia]]. ''"The Ravenna document and the future of Orthodox-Catholic dialogue. (The 1983 Code of Canon Law: Twenty Five Years Later)."'' '''The Jurist'''. 69.2 (Summer 2009): 766-789.
:* Metr. [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus]]. ''[ Letter of Metropolitan Seraphim to Roman Catholic Bishop of Syros Island].'' November 9, 2007.
:* Very Rev. Fr. Victor Potapov. ''[ Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy].'' Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. Washington, DC. 1996-1998.
:* Very Rev. Leonid Kishkovsky. ''[ Primacy theme of Catholic-Orthodox dialogue].'' '''The Orthodox Church''' (News Magazine). Volume 43. Nativity/Theophany 2007.
:* -----. ''[ Russian Orthodox Official Hopeful for a Prompt Beatification. A Great Pope, Bishop Hilarion Says of John Paul II].'' '''ZENIT News'''. 2005-04-05.

* [[w:Aidan Nichols|Aidan Nichols]] ([[w:Dominican Order|Order of Preachers]]). ''[ Rome and the Eastern Churches].'' 2nd Ed. [[w:Ignatius Press|Ignatius Press]], 2010. 350pp.
* Abp. [[w:John R. Quinn|John R. Quinn]]. ''[ The Reform of the Papacy: The Costly Call to Christian Unity].'' [[w:Ut Unum Sint|Ut Unum Sint]]: Studies on Papal Primacy. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1999. 189pp.
* Cardinal [[w:Yves Congar|Yves Congar]]. ''[ After Nine Hundred Years: The Background of the Schism Between the Eastern and Western Churches].'' Fordham Univ Press, 1959. 155pp.
* Cardinal [[w:Charles Journet|Charles Journet]]. ''[ Exigences Chrétiennes en Politique].'' (First printed: Paris, Egloff, 1945). Editions Saint-Augustin, 1990. 590pp.
* Cardinal [[w:Walter Kasper|Walter Kasper]] (Ed.). ''[ The Petrine Ministry: Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Held at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity].'' Transl. Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity. The Newman Press (Paulist Press Imprint), 2006. 257pp.
* Dr. [ Stephen F. Brown] and Dr. [ Khaled Anatolios]. ''[ Catholicism & Orthodox Christianity].'' 3rd Ed. NY: Chelsea House (Infobase Publishing), 2009. 144pp. (''ca. Grades 6-9'')
* Dr. [ David Bradshaw]. ''[ Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom].'' Cambridge University Press, 2004.
* Fr. Dr. [[w:Adrian Fortescue (priest)|Adrian Fortescue]]. ''[ The Orthodox Eastern Church].'' 2nd Ed. London: Catholic Truth Society, 1908. 498pp.
* Jeffrey Bruce Beshoner. ''[[w:Ivan Gagarin|Ivan Sergeevich Gagarin]]: The Search for Orthodox and Catholic Union.'' University of Notre Dame Press, 2002. 321pp.
* Patriarch [[w:Maximos IV Sayegh|Maximos IV Sayegh]] ([[w:Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite Greek Catholic Church]], 1947-1967), Ed.. ''The Eastern Churches and Catholic Unity.'' Transl. John Dingle. Herder, Freiburg. 1963. 237pp.
* Prof. [[w:Henry Chadwick (theologian)|Henry Chadwick]]. ''[ East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church: From Apostolic Times Until the Council of Florence].'' Oxford history of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press, 2003. 316pp.
* Prof. [[w:James Likoudis|James Likoudis]]. ''[ Eastern Orthodoxy and the See of Peter: A Journey Towards Full Communion].'' Waite Park, MN: POS Inc., 2006. 174pp.
* Prof. James Likoudis. ''[ Ending the Byzantine Greek Schism: Containing: the l4th c. Apologia of Demetrios Kydones for Unity With Rome & the 'Contra errores Graecorum' of St. Thomas Aquinas].'' Rev'd Ed. Benedictus Books, June 1992. 231pp.
* Richard A. Mattiussi. ''[ The Ratzinger Formula: A Catalyst for the Unfolding Dialogue Between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches on “Conciliarity and Primacy”].''
* Scott Butler, Norman Dahlgren, David Hess. ''[ Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy].'' Queenship Publishing Co., 1996. 431pp.
* Stephen K. Ray. ''[ Upon This Rock: St. Peter and the Primacy of Rome in Scripture and the Early Church].'' Modern Apologetics Library. [[w:Ignatius Press|Ignatius Press]], 1999. 331pp.
:* Dr. [[w:Anthony Kenny|Anthony Kenny]]. ''[ Follies of Roman Catholicism: How the Catholic Church failed to save itself from the Reformation].'' '''[[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]''' (From The Times Literary Supplement). March 4, 2009.
:* Blair Worden. ''"Pioneer for Unity: [[Metrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]] (1589-1639) and Relations Between the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Reformed Churches."'' '''The Journal of Ecclesiastical History.''' 41.3 (1990): p.524.
:* F. Dvornik. ''The Photian Schism in Western and Eastern Tradition.'' '''The Review of Politics'''. Vol.10, No.3, July 1948. pp.310-331.
:* Joseph A. Loya, [[w:Augustinians|O.S.A]]. ''[;col1 Orientale Lumen Euro-East I Conference in Istanbul].(ECUMENICAL EVENTS)(Conference news).'' '''Journal of Ecumenical Studies''' 41.2 (Spring 2004). pp.287-288.
:* Prof. Richard B. Rose. ''Church Union Plans in the Crusader Kingdoms: An Account of a Visit by the Greek Patriarch Leontios to the Holy Land in A.D. 1177-1178.'' '''The Catholic Historical Review.''' Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1987), pp.371-390.
:* Fr. Dr. [ Russel Murray] (OFM, PhD). ''"Mirror of experience: [[Gregory Palamas|Palamas]] and [[w:Bonaventure|Bonaventure]] on the experience of God--a contribution to Orthodox-Roman Catholic dialogue."'' '''Journal of Ecumenical Studies.''' 44.3 (2009): pp.432+.
:* [[w:Sandro Magister|Sandro Magister]]. ''[ Ukraine an Obstacle to Catholic-Orthodox Unity].'' '''The Vatican Lobby'''. Thursday, July 1, 2010.

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