Serafim Rose

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Ieromonahul Serafim (Rose), (după numele de mirean Eugene Dennis Rose, n. 13 august, 1934 - m. 2 septembrie, 1982) a fost preot monah al Bisericii Ortodoxe Ruse din Afara Rusiei în Statele Unite ale Americii. Scrierile sale au contribuit semnificativ la cunoașterea și răspândirea Ortodoxiei în America și Europa Occidentală, dar au influențat și gândirea ortodoxă din țările tradițional ortodoxe. Deși nu a fost canonizat, mulți creștini îl consideră un sfânt contemporan, având compuse rugăciuni, slujbe și icoane în onoarea sa.

Cuprins

Viața timpurie

Born to Frank and Esther Rose in San Diego in 1934, Eugene was raised in California, where he would remain his entire life. He was baptized in the Methodist faith at fourteen years old, but later became an atheist, losing all belief in God. Rated at genius level in high school in formal IQ testing, in San Francisco he entered a beatnik phase in his life and practiced Buddhism.

In the summer of 1955, between his junior and senior years at college, Eugene met Finnish-born Jon Gregerson, through whom he came into initial contact with the Orthodox faith. Eugene came out as homosexual to a close friend from college after his mother discovered letters penned between her son and Walter Pomeroy, a friend from high school. Eugene later shed his identity as a gay man as he slowly accepted Orthodoxy, eventually ending his lengthy relationship with Gregerson.[1]

Ortodoxia

While studying under Alan Watts at the American Academy of Asian Studies after graduating from Pomona College in 1956, Eugene discovered the writings of René Guenon. Through Guenon's writings, Eugene was inspired to seek out an authentic, grounded spiritual faith tradition. Gregerson, a practicing Russian Orthodox Christian at the time, introduced Eugene to Orthodoxy. Just as Gregerson was choosing to abandon his Orthodoxy, Eugene was inspired to learn more about the faith. This culminated in Eugene's decision to enter the Church, being received into the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia through chrismation in 1962.

Eugene and another Orthodox Christian, Gleb Podmoshensky, later formed a community of Orthodox booksellers and publishers called the St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, with the blessing of St. John Maximovitch, Archbishop of San Francisco in the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. The community eventually decided to flee urban modernity into the wilderness of northern California to become monks in 1966. At his tonsure in 1970, Eugene took the name "Seraphim" after St. Seraphim of Sarov.

Following his ordination as hieromonk, Fr. Seraphim began writing several books, including Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future, and The Soul After Death. One of his best known books, God's Revelation to the Human Heart, was originally given as a lecture to a religious studies class at UC-Santa Cruz in 1981, and published in book form after his repose. He also founded the magazine The Orthodox Word, still published today by the Brotherhood. The collective body of work that Fr. Seraphim published quickly proliferated throughout America upon Fr. Seraphim's death and later in Russia and Eastern Europe upon the fall of atheist Communism in those countries, though typewritten copies of some of his books had been distributed underground for many years prior.

As a layman in San Francisco, the future Fr. Seraphim developed a close relationship with his spiritual father and mentor, St. John Maximovitch (+1966), then Archbishop of San Francisco for the Russian Church Abroad.

Father Seraphim Rose.jpg

Învățăturile

Although an American convert, Fr. Seraphim is regarded by many as a bastion of sound Orthodox teaching in a time when many American jurisdictions, and even factions within the Russian Church Abroad itself, were allegedly introducing new and/or erroneous teachings or practices. In Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future, Fr. Seraphim highlighted what he and others saw as dangerous trends in both the secular and ecclesiastical worlds—namely, modernism and ecumenism (though the book mainly deals with religious movements invading America and outside Orthodoxy).

It was during this time also that Holy Transfiguration Monastery (Brookline, Massachusetts) began to distort the official positions of the Synod of the Russian Church Abroad[citation needed]. Fr. Seraphim with his fellow monastic, Fr. Herman (Podmoshensky), used their own tiny printing press to transmit what they regarded as the uncompromised teachings of the Church on a number of issues such as evolution, life after death, and pre-Schism western saints.

One major issue of contention between Fr. Seraphim and Holy Transfiguration Monastery was the presence of grace within the allegedly Soviet-compromised hierarchy of the Moscow Patriarchate. Fr. Seraphim refuted the extremist views of this monastery and consistently affirmed that Moscow, though ailing, still had grace.

Throughout his life, Fr. Seraphim stressed an "Orthodoxy of the heart," which he felt was absent in much of the ecclesiastical life in America.

One of his more controversial books is The Soul After Death, which includes the teaching which had been passed on to Fr. Seraphim from Saint John of the so-called Aerial Toll-Houses, regarding the soul's journey after its departure from the body. This teaching has drawn criticism from some within the Orthodox Church, but has been defended by such noted theologians as Metropolitan Hierotheos (Vlachos).

Father Seraphim Rose at St. Herman's, April 1981, serving the Divine Liturgy. Note that he is holding a paschal trikirion.

Moartea

After feeling acute pains for several days while working in his cell in 1982, Fr. Seraphim was taken by his fellow monks to a hospital for treatment. When he reluctantly arrived at Mercy Medical Center in Redding, California, he was declared in critical condition and fell into semi-consciousness. After exploratory surgery was completed, it was discovered that a blood clot had blocked a vein supplying blood to Fr. Seraphim's intestine, which had become a mass of non-functioning dead tissue. Fr. Seraphim slipped into a coma after a second surgery. Hundreds of people came to visit the hospital and celebrated the liturgy regularly in the chapel, praying for a miracle to save their beloved father's life. Reaction from throughout the world was great, with thousands of prayers said for the ailing hieromonk. He died on September 2, 1982.

After being dead for several days and while lying in repose in a pauper's coffin at his wilderness monastery, visitors claimed that Fr. Seraphim did not succumb to decay and rigor mortis. His body remained supple while several claimed he smelled of roses. A cause for glorification was begun after Fr. Seraphim's burial. He eventually informally attained the title of Blessed after several miracles were attributed to him and now he awaits glorification into sainthood by an Orthodox synod.

Înregistrări audio

Din 1982

Cărți publicate

Ca autor

Second Edition: Hieromonk Damascene (Christensen) (ed.), 2001.
  • Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future. Platina: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1975. (ISBN 188790400X)
  • The Place of Blessed Augustine in the Orthodox Church. Platina: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1983. (ISBN 0938635123)
  • The Soul After Death: Contemporary "After-Death" Experiences in the Light of the Orthodox Teaching on the Afterlife. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1988. (ISBN 093863514X)
  • The Apocalypse: In the Teachings of Ancient Christianity. Platina: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1985. (ISBN 0938635670)
  • Genesis, Creation and Early Man. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 2000. (ISBN 1887904026)
  • Blessed John the Wonderworker: A Preliminary Account of the Life and Miracles of Archbishop John Maximovitch. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1987. (ISBN 0938635018)
  • Letters from Father Seraphim. Nikodemos Orthodox Publication Society. (ISBN 1879066084)

Ca editor sau traducător

  • Vita Patrum, by St. Gregory of Tours. (Foreword by Seraphim Rose. This introductory material runs more than 100 pages.) Platina: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1988. (ISBN 0938635239)
  • The Apocalypse of St. John: An Orthodox Commentary, by Archbishop Averky Taushev. (Introduction by Seraphim Rose). Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1998. (ISBN 0938635670)
  • The Orthodox Veneration of the Mother of God, by St. John of Shanghai (Maximovitch). Includes an introduction by Fr. Seraphim on the theology of Archbishop (now Saint) John. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1978. (ISBN 0938635689)
  • Little Russian Philokalia, vol. 1, by St. Seraphim of Sarov. St. Xenia Skete Press, 1997. (ISBN 0938635301)
  • Little Russian Philokalia, vol. 2, by Abbot Nazarius of Valaam. St. Xenia Skete Press, 1997. (ISBN 093863531X)
  • Little Russian Philokalia, vol. 4, by St. Paisius Velichkovsky. : St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1994. (ISBN 0938635336)
  • The Sin of Adam and Our Redemption: Seven Homilies, by St. Symeon the New Theologian. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1979. (ASIN B0006DY97Q)
  • The First-Created Man: Seven Homilies by St. Symeon the New Theologian, by St. Symeon the New Theologian. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1994. (ISBN 0938635115). (Apparently somewhat different than the above, as it is 40 pages longer.)
  • The Path to Salvation: A Manual of Spiritual Transformation, by St. Theophan the Recluse. St. Xenia Skete Press, 1997. (ISBN 1887904514)
  • The Restoration of the Orthodox Way of Life, by Archbishop Andrew of New-Diveyevo. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1976. (ASIN B0006Y3F1G)
  • The Northern Thebaid: Monastic Saints of the Russian North, compiled and translated by Fr. Seraphim Rose and Abbot Herman Podmoshensky. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1995. (ISBN 0938635379)
  • Contemporary Ascetics of Mount Athos, Vol. 2, by Abbot Cherubim, translated by Nun Thaisia Simonsson. Platina: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1992 (2nd Rev edition). (ISBN 0938635573)

Biografie

  • Christensen, Hieromonk Damascene. Father Seraphim Rose: His Life and Works. Platina: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 2003. (ISBN 1887904077) (greatly revised edition of Not of This World)
  • Christensen, Monk Damascene. Not of This World: The Life and Teaching of Fr. Seraphim Rose. Platina: St. Herman Press, 1993. (ISBN 0938635522)
  • Scott, Cathy. Seraphim Rose: The True Story and Private Letters. Regina Orthodox Press, 2000. (ISBN 1928653014). N.B.: The author is Fr. Seraphim Rose's niece.

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