Nichifor I al Constantinopolului
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Cel între sfinţi părintele nostru Nichifor I (gr. Nikephoros), Mărturisitorul, a fost Patriarh al Constantinopolului în timpul iconoclasmului, la începutul secolului al IX-lea. Prăznuirea sa în Biserica Ortodoxă se face în ziua de 2 iunie, iar aducerea moaştelor sale din Prokonnis la Constantinopol la 13 martie.
Sfântul Nichifor s-a născut în preajma anului 758 şi a murit în anul 828.
El a pus apărarea doctrinei ortodoxe în faţa ereziilor şi a conştiinţei ortodoxe în faţa dictaturii statului mai presus de poziţia sa socială. Perioada cât a fost patriarh (806-815) a fost marcată şi încheiată de reacţia instigată de împăratul Leon al V-lea împotriva reluării cinstirii imaginilor religioase (icoanelor). Lucrările sale principale sunt trei scrieri împotriva iconoclasmului.
St. Nicephorus was born about 758. He was well educated. His father, Theodore, was secretary to the emperor Constantine V Copronymus, a iconoclast. Theodore, however, was an iconodule and came into conflict with the emperor who removed him from his position and then had him scourged and tortured before banishing him. Thus, Nicephorus grew up with his father's example of defending the veneration of the images before his eyes.
When Constantine VI and Irene came to the imperial throne and restored the use of sacred images in churches, Nicephorus came to their notice and soon obtained their favor and was placed in his father's former position. He distinguished himself greatly by his zeal against the Iconoclasts. He also was secretary to the Seventh Ecumenical Council. After the death of Patriarch Tarasius of Constantinople on February 25, 806, no one was found more worthy to succeed him than Nicephorus. To give an authentic testimony of his faith, during the time of his consecration he held in his hand a treatise he had written in defense of holy images, and after the ceremony was concluded, he laid it in back the altar as a pledge that he would always maintain the tradition of the Church.
Over the following years, emperor Constantine was blinded, Irene banished, emperor Nicephorus I, her successor, had fallen before the Bulgarians, emperor Michael I was driven from the throne, and, in 813, Leo the Armenian became emperor. He was an iconoclast. Leo began a campaign to suppress the veneration of the icons and to persuade Patr. Nicephorus to approve their removal. But, the patriarch did not bend. Forseeing the storm gathering, Patr. Nicephorus and several bishops and abbots spent most of their time in prayer.
Soon, emperor Leo, with certain Iconoclastic bishops, sent for Patr. Nicephorus and his fellow-bishops. They obeyed the summons to the palace, but entreated the emperor to leave the government of the Church to her pastors. In a rage Leo drove them from his presence. Later, the iconoclast bishops assembled in the imperial palace and directed Patr. Nicephorus to appear before them, to which he responded, "Who gave you this authority?" Saying he would obey only to one of the other patriarchs.
The iconoclastic bishops proceeded to pronounce against him a sentence of deposition and the holy pastor, after several attempts had been made secretly to take away his life, was sent by the emperor into banishment. Michael the Stammerer, who succeeded Leo the Armenian, in 820, also favored the iconoclastic faction, and continued to harass S. Nicephorus, who died in exile, on June 2, 828, in the monastery of St. Theodore. By order of the empress Theodora, his body was brought to Constantinople with great pomp, on March 13, 846.
His principal works are three writings against iconoclasm.
- Mărturisirea ta cea inspirată adus-a Bisericii biruinţă, Sfinte Ierarhe Nichifore. Surghiun nedrept ai suferit pentru cinstirea icoanei lui Dumnezeu Cuvântul. Părinte drepte, roagă-te lui Hristos, Dumnezeul nostru, să ne dăruiască nouă mare milă.
Tropar (Glas 4):
- Îndreptător credinţei şi chip blândeţilor, învăţător înfrânării te-a arătat pe tine turmei tale adevărul lucrurilor. Pentru aceasta ai câştigat cu smerenia cele înalte, cu sărăcia cele bogate. Părinte Ierarhe Nichifor, roagă pe Hristos Dumnezeu ca să mântuiască sufletele noastre.
Condac (Glas 4):
- Ca unul ce ai primit de la Dumnezeu cunună de biruinţă astăzi din cer, o Nichifore, izbăveşte pe cei ce cu credinţă te cinstesc pe tine ca pe un ierarh împreună şi învăţător.
- ↑ Tropar tradus din limba engleză
Nichifor I al Constantinopolului
|Patriarh al Constantinopolului
806 – 815
- Translation of the relics of St Nicephorus the Patriarch of Constantinople (OCA)
- St Nicephorus the Confessor the Patriarch of Constantinople (OCA)
- Nikephoros the Confessor, Patriarch of Constantinople (GOARCH)
- "Nicephorus" in New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. VIII, pp. 158-159 at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
- Ecumenical Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople at Wikipedia